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KAAP 220 Exam 3 Study Guide Types of joint classifications by motion (examples of each)o Synarthrosis (no movement) Suture  Gomphosis Synchondrosis Synostosiso Amphiarthrosis (little movement) Syndesmosis symphysiso Diarthrosis (freely moveable) Synovial- Types of joint classification by structure (examples of each)o Fibrous  Suture  Gomphosis Syndesmosiso Cartilaginous Synchondrosis Symphysiso Synovial  Synovial- Synovial joint structure (cartilage, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, joint capsule, etc.)o Patella,o Synovial membrane1o Joint capsuleo Joint cavityo Articular cartilageo Bursao Fat pado Meniscuso Extracapsular ligamento Intracapsular ligament- Three basic types of joint motiono Gliding o Rotation o Angular motion- Six classifications of synovial joints (examples of each)o Glidingo Hingeo Pivoto Ellipsoido Saddleo Ball-and-socket- Body Motions (all those covered in lecture 18; know what motions are in the 3primary planes)o Flexion and extension Occurs in sagittal plane Flexion reduces angle between articulating elements Extension increases angle between articulating elements 2 Extension past neutral is called hyperextensiono Abduction and adduction Occurs in frontal plane Abduction away from body Towards longitudinal axis of bodyo Rotation Occurs in the transverse plane Medial/internal rotation- Anterior surface of limb moves towards mid-line Lateral/external rotation - Anterior surface of limb moves away from mid-line Left/right- For motions about mid-line of body i.e head rotationo Circumduction Movement of a limb in a circular motiono Foot motions Dorsiflexion- Reduces angle between food and leg (foot flexion) Plantar flexion- Increases angle between foot and leg (foot extension) Inversion- Twisting of the foot to turn sole inward Eversion- Twisting of food to turn sole outwardo Hand motions Pronation3- Palm turned posteriorly- Radius crosses over ulna Supination- Palm turn anteriorly Opposition - Movement of thumb towards surfaces of palm or other fingers Elevation- Movement of body part superiorly Depression- Movement of body part inferiorly Protraction- Movement of body part anteriorly Retraction- Movement of body part posteriorly- Shoulder Jointo Type of joint; structures aiding in joint stability; how stable is it?; types of motion permitted; range of motion; types of injury Ball and socket Greatest Range of motion Types of injuries are - Subluxation and dislocation- Impingement- Rotator cuff tear- Hip Jointo Type of joint; structures aiding in joint stability; how stable is it?; types of motion permitted; range of motion; types of injury4 STURDY Ball and socket Wide range of motion but much less than shoulder - Knee Jointo Type of joint; structures aiding in joint stability; how stable is it?; types of motion permitted; range of motion; types of injury Largest synovial joint in body Essentially a hinge joint- Mainly flexion and extension Large range of motion ACL, PCL, MCL, LCL (stabilize tibio-femoral joint)- Can you name and describe the 4 functions of muscle?o Movemento Postureo Protection o Heat Production- Can you describe the characteristics of the 3 types of muscle tissue and the differences between each?5Type Appearance Structure Nuclei Control LocationSkeletalStriatedLong,parallelcylindricalfibersMultiple VoluntaryThroughoutbodyCardiacStriatedShort,branchedfibersOne Involuntary HeartSmoothNon-StriatedShort,spindleshapedfiberOne InvoluntaryWalls ofinternalorgans,bloodvessels, etc.- Can you name and describe the 4 properties/characteristics of muscle?o Excitability Responds to stimulus Initiates contractiono Contractibility Ability to produce tension between its end pointso Extensibility Ability to stretch when external force is appliedo Elasticity Ability to return to original length after being stretched- Understand and describe the general regions of muscle6o Belly, Region with contractile elements of muscle  Middle of muscleo Tendon, connects muscle to bone  dense regular CT ends of muscleo Aponeurosis,  broad sheet  attaches to wide area- Be sure to understand and describe the levels of skeletal muscles structureo Epimysium, Dense layer of collagen fibers surrounding entire muscle Separates muscle from surrounding structures Connects muscle to deeper tissues Continuous with attachments o Fascicle, Bundle of muscle fibers - 150 per fascicle thousands per muscleo Perimysium, fibrous layer  divides muscle into compartments surrounds individual fascicles  contains blood vessels and nerveso Muscle Fiber,7 Bundle of myofibrils About 1 million fibers per medium sized muscle Each is huge- Can span entire distance from origin to insertiono Endomysium, delicate CT  Surrounds muscle individual fiberso Myofibril Functional contractile elements of muscle- Understand and describe the traits of each of the 4 types of structural organization of muscleso Parallel Fascicles in parallel with long axis of muscle and tendons Most muscles of the body Can contract 30% of fiver length  Relatively weak muscles - More for speed and distanceo Pennate (unipennate, bipennate, multipennate) Feathered appearance Fascicles join to tendon at common angle Strong muscleso Convergent Fascicles converge towards single tendon Broad origin Versatile- Stim. Of different portions can change direction of pull8 More similar to pennate than parallel (increased force)o Circular Fascicle concentrically arranged Typically found around opening or recess in body When muscle contracts, diameter of opening decreases- What is the fundamental unit of muscle?o Muscle fiber- Describe the location and function of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum and T-Tubuleso SR Web-like covering of myofibril Stores calcium ionso T-tubules Sites where calcium ions are releases- Describe the two types of myofilamentso Actin Thin filament Double strand of actin molecules- Twisted togethero Myosin Thick filament Rod like tail- Run parallel to myofibril Two globular head- What is a sarcomere and how does it relate to muscle contraction?o Region between z-lines9o Functional contractile unit of a muscle fiber- Identify the various regions of a sarcomereo Z-line, A-Band, etc.o- Describe the steps Sliding Filament Theoryo Step 1


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UD KAAP 220 - Exam 3 Study Guide

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