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Condensed material that was covered on the first test- the third testConceptstests before and with explanation.Chapters 1-3 Introduction The Crime Scene Physical Evidence Chapter 1-3: Definitions to know:Criminalistics: Principles and techniques of the physical and natural science are practiced and applies to the analysis of crime scene evidence. Uses chemistry, geology, biology, metallurgy.Forensic Science: Application of science to the law (Thisis the broad definition)Being more specific would be the application of science to the criminal and civil laws that are enforced by the police agencies in the criminal justice system. Frye Standard: the concept of "general acceptance" of scientific evidence (Refer to Frye v. United States) Spiral or Circle search: slightly decreasing, less than concentric circles from the outermost boundary determination to a central point. Works from outside toward the inside and is for out doors. EX: Plain crashes, explosionsStrip or Line Search: series of lanes down which one or morepeople walk along. Once the have reached the end of one line they will continue down the line that is next to them (theoreticallines). Most effective out doors. Grid orDouble Strip Search: After finishing the "Strip" search they will repeat the process butthis time they will look perpendicular to the original lines. It takes longer but it is much more thorough. Zone or Quadrant: The area will be divided into 4 or more equal quadrants and each quadrant will be searched separately by on of the three searches above. Pie or Wheel Search: Divide an area in pie shaped sections and searched separately. Rough Sketch :This kind of sketch is done while on the scene, not to scale, in pencil, crude withmeasurements.Final Sketch: Revised version of the rough sketch, no measurements, done in ink or on computer, had a legend or key.A.F.I.S: Automated Fingerprint Identification (State fingerprint system) I.A.F.S: Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification ( national fingerprint and criminal history system, maintained by FBI)C.O.D.I.S.: Combined DNA Index System (More about this to come) Algor Mortis: The decrease in body temperature after death. Generally 1.5 degrees per hour.Rigor Mortis:When the joints in the body become flaccid or stiff after death. Within 1-3 hours is when this occursLivor Mortis: The reddish purple coloration inseparate areas of the body due to the blood accumulating in the small vessels due to gravity. Forensic Entomology: Study of insects and their relation to criminal investigation Expert Witness: Can render opinion because of the training/ education/ knowledge in the subject in which could help in a trial case.Fact Witness: One who testifies by person experience and NOT OPINION Class Characteristics: An identification of an item by being linked to a group ( Ex: Brand, size, model, make)Individual Characteristics: An identification of an item due to its unique qualities or characteristics that linkto a single item or individual (Ex: Fingerprints, souls of someone's shoes,hair)Other concepts and things to know from Chapters 1-3:What types of ways can one document a crime scent upon arrival? There are three ways in which a person can document a crime scene and they are as followsNotes: Take bullet point style, brief, and must document all actions, efforts, and observationsPhotography: Pictures of the scene in it's reality upon arrival as well as documented evidence found at the scene. Three types of pictures to know... Closeup... Overall...mid-range.Sketch: Drawing of the scene done to point out locations of evidence relative to the landmarks.Two types of sketches explained indefinitions section (Rough and Final Sketch).Upon arriving at a crime scene, what must we do in order to conduct an effective and uncontaminated investigation?1. Find entry and exit point (If any) 2. Stop any contamination (Don't let anyone touch anything)3. Stop any destruction of evidence ( I repeat, touch nothing!) 4. Keep unauthorized personnel out Super Important Court Cases!Frye v. United States: The lie detector was agreed to be acceptable in the court if it was widely accepted in the scientific community. AKA "General Acceptance". Daubert v. Merrell: The trial that established that the trial judge was the "gate keeper" on the scientific evidence that would enter the court room depending on its relativity to the case. It also instilled that evidence must meet the "Frye Standards" : Tested, reviewed, error rate, maintained standards, generally accepted.Ways to die: HomicideAccidentSuicide Natural When investigating a scene postmortem (victim is dead) what must be taken into account when acquiringevidence?Weather conditions: Is it humid, cold, hot, did it rain?Climate: what could this do to the body or evidence?Bugs around: What got to the body first and how many are theregeographical location: A body can stay longer preserved in certain locations Forensic Databases: The types of databases are: Firearms, DNA, Serology, Automotive paint, Shoe print.The types of Evidence: Explosives, fibers, fingerprints, firearms and ammunition, glass, hair, impressions, organs and physiological fluids, paint, petroleum products (gas), plastic bags, polymer (rubber), powder residues, serial numbers, soil and minerals, tool marks, vehicle lights, wood and other vegetative matter.Scientific Method: forming a question, forming a hypothesis, performing an experiment, repeating experiment, recording results, conclusion.Locard's Principle of Exchange:Basically where ever you go, you leave something of yourself and take something from that place. (Refer to the first lab with the t-shirt and the foreignfibers we found on our shirts.)Calvin Goddard: Used comparison microscope to determine weather a particular gun fired a bullet by test-firing. Refer to online lab with matching bullets on the website. Francis Galton: Study of fingerprints. He developed a methodology of classifying them fir filing.Chapters 4-5Physical Properties Organic Analysis Chapter 4-5 Terms to know: Radial Lines: When glass is penetrated with a bullet it will form two types of lines. This type of line is a wiggly line that comes from the center and moves out. They look like spider legs.Concentric Lines: the second type of line made. This line are wiggly full circles made around the area of impact. They are like the body of the "spider" Fahrenheit Scale: When water freezes at


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UNT CJUS 3330 - Chapters 1-3

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