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AAFS 219/219ZSTUDY GUIDE FOR FINAL EXAMStudents should refer to lectures from April 1 to May 5, and the following readings from The African American Odyssey: Ch. 1-3, 5, 6, pp. 200-203, 9, 11-14, 17, and pp. 424-438.1. 13th Amendment - Abolished slavery except in cases of involuntary servitude.2. 14th Amendment - Established definition of U.S. Citizenship; ratified 18683. 15th Amendment - Ratified 1870; Granted African American males the right to vote4. Hiram Revels - 1st African American U.S. Senator from Mississippi; served one year5. Blanche Bruce - 1st African American Senator to serve a full term; elected from Mississippi6. P.B.S Pinchback – Served one month as governor in Louisiana after the white governor was removed from office.7. Reconstruction Acts – Led by radical republicans, congress divided the south into five military districts. Each former confederate state except Tennessee was to frame a new state constitution and establish a new state government. The first reconstruction acts provided for universal manhood suffrage, which granted the right to vote to all males, including black men. 8. Robert Smalls - African American Congressman who stole a Confederate gunboat as a slave during the Civil War; elected from South Carolina9. Freedmen’s Bureau - Federal agency during Reconstruction that assisted African Americans in land, education, and relief10. Radical Republicans – Members of the Republican Party during reconstruction who vigorously supported the rights of African Americans to vote, to hold public office, and to have the same legal and economic opportunities as white people.11. Port Royal Experiment - Established in South Carolina during the Civil War, it granted "freed" slaves land and established Freedmen schools12. 40 Acres and A Mule - Slogan that noted effort of compensation of Freedmen via land reform13. Special Field Order #15 - Attempt by Gen. William Sherman to grant slaves land between Jacksonville, Fla. and Charleston, SC before the end of the Civil War14. Freedmen’s Bureau - Federal agency during Reconstruction that assisted African Americans in land, education, and relief15. Ku Klux Klan (Reconstruction era) - Domestic terrorist organization started in 1865 that targeted African Americans via extreme violence and intimidation16. Compromise of 1877 - the federal government allowed the removal of U.S. Troops in the south sent to protect African Americans17. Sharecropping - Mostly African American migrant workers bound to oppressive work contracts with landowners18. Jim Crow - Name of minstrel performer that became name for racial segregation in America19. White Primary – primary elections in the southern states in which any non-white voter was prohibited form participating in.20. Poll Tax - Disfranchisement measure of paying a fee to participate in voting21. Literacy Test - Disfranchisement measure given to see if one was competent to vote22. Racial Etiquette - Addressing whites with titles, stepping out of whites way on a sidewalk, etc.23. Crop Lien – black and white farmers purchased good on credit from local merchants. The merchants demanded collateral in the form of a Lien of Crop, typically cotton. If thefarmer failed to repay the loan, the merchant had the legal right to seize the crop.24. Convict Labor System - African American prisoners rented to private corporations in the South; served as a replacement for slave labor25. Slaughterhouse Case (1873) - 1873 Supreme Court case that strictly interpreted 14th Amendment; supported states rights26. Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) - 1896 U.S. Supreme Court case; upheld racial segregation27. Civil Rights Cases (1883) - U.S. Supreme Court case in 1883; declared the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional28. Tulsa Riot (1921) - Alleged assault of a white woman by an African American man resulted in the destruction of "Black Wall Street" in 192129. Lynchings - Brutal practice of killing African Americans via mob violence; used to enforce social, political, and economic control30. Booker T. Washington - Leader of Tuskegee Institute; advocated African Americans learning work skills and trades, and not challenge racial segregation31. W.E.B. DuBois - Educator and activist; helped to establish the NAACP and advocated agitation for civil rights and social equality for African Americans32. Atlanta Compromise Speech – was an address on the topic of race relations given by Booker T. Washington. The speech laid the foundation for the Atlanta Compromise.33. Talented Tenth - Theory introduced by W.E.B. DuBois that argued that African American intellectual elites needed to be cultivated into leaders via a liberal arts education34. Niagara Movement - Established in 1905, served as the predecessor for the NAACP35. NAACP – The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. It is a civilrights organization formed in 1909. Its mission is to ensure the political, educational, social and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination.36. Red Summer (1919) – When racial violence erupted in Chicago and elsewhere.37. Great Migration - Mass movement of African Americans from the South to the urban North beginning in the early 1900s38. Langston Hughes – One of the earliest innovators in the new literary art from of jazz poetry. Was best known as the leader of the Harlem Renaissance.39. Claude McKay – Wrote the poem “We Must Die”. She settled in New York City and was Jamaican. The poem was in response to the attacks by whites during the Red Summer.40. Jazz –Jazz in Harlem and the Jazz age took place in the 1920’s. The entertainers, musicians, singers, and dancers had a huge part in Jazz. It helped give African Americans a voice.41. Zora Neale Hurston – She was a famous author. Most known for her novel “their Eyes Were Watching God.42. Duke Ellington – was a pivotal figure in the history of jazz. He was a jazz musician and composer.43. Louis Armstrong – An American Jazz Trumpeter and singer. He was a foundation influence in jazz, changing to focus of music to solo performances.44. Marcus Garvey – A Jamaican political leader. Was a major proponent in Black Nationalism and Pan Africanism movements. He founded the Univeral Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL).45. UNIA – Universal Negro Improvement Association. Founded by Marcus Garvey. 46. Cotton Club – Harlem’s most

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