KSU POL 10500 - World Politics Final Study Guide: Part I

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World Politics Final Study Guide: Part IChapter 7 - Intergovernmental Organizations: Alternative GovernanceAN OVERVIEW OF INTERGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Types of International Organizations (PowerPoint) Function: International actors; countries compose them. They provide an alternative to some of the traditional authority of sovereign states to govern themselves domestically and to determine the course of events in the state-based system. - General: United Nations and European Union- Specialized: Arab Monetary Fund Geographical- Global: World Bank- Regional: African Union*Global/General: United Nations*Global/Specialized; World Trade Organization*Regional/General: European Union*Regional/Specialized: Arab Monetary Fund Intergovernmental (IGOs) or nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) A History of IGOs: first IGO – Greek “Delian League” to create a unified responseto the threat from Persia.  Theories of IGO Formation: (Early common humanity roots…. Pierre Dubois: The Recovery of the Holy Land; IGOs to promote peace. Immanuel Kant: Perpetual Peace. Emeric Cruce: Le Nouveau Cynee)1. Functionalism: - “Bottom-up” evolutionary approach- Begins with limited, pragmatic cooperation on narrow, nonpolitical issues (delivering mail globally, ex.) that leads to broader and higher levels of cooperation and trust later, on politically sensitive issues along the path to comprehensive cooperation or even global government. 2. Neofunctionalism- “Top-down” approach; “if you build it, it will come”- Rejects the idea that global cooperation and the IGOs that go with it necessarily need to evolve from cooperation through IGOs that deal with functional issues like delivering mail, and progressively build up to cooperation and IGOs related to security and other critical political issues. Instead, they believe if you create an IGO and give it the resources and the authority it needs to address central globalproblems, countries ad their people will learn to trust and govern through these IGOs. - Need to establish independent and powerful IGOs to address current political issues; quicker. Origins of IGO’s (PowerPoint)- Belief in a community of humankind- Developmental stages Hague System (first part of 1900s)  League of Nations (1919 – World War II) United Nations: (1945, after World War II) - Big-power peacekeeping UN Security Council- Pragmatic cooperation Wide range of specialized agencies: Central Commission for theNavigation of the Rhine (1815) is the oldest The Growth of IGOs: IGOs are modern. - Rapid growth in the number of all types of IGOs during this century- Qualitative growth too Roles of IGOs are expanding and taking on new functions Reasons for Growth - Increased international contact: communication and technology evolution. - Increased interdependence- Expansion of transnational problems- Failure of state-centered system to provide security- Effort of small states to gain strength through joint action (demanding development aid from EDCs)- Successful role models Roles That IGOs Play Interactive Arena- Interactive arena where nations pursue self-interest1. Disadvantages of using IGO as an interactive arena IGO becomes focus of struggle and not forum for cooperation Reduced support for IGOs if they do not promote national interest, goals2. Advantages of use of IGO as an interactive arena Intergovernmentalism Using IGO makes it politically easier to take action Center of Cooperation- Promote and facilitate cooperation on specific issues, often nonpolitical- Seek to build trust and solve social and economic issues that transcend national borders- Regime Theory: A complex of IGOs, NGOs, norms of behavior, processes, and treaties that govern national and international actors Create settings for interaction and cooperation The Regime for the Oceans and Seas Independent International Actor- Permanent administrative IGO staff increases its authority and role- Role of mediation and conciliation- Organizational independence Supranational Organization- Specialized Supranational Governance: Ex. World Trade Organization- Regional Government: Ex. European Union- World Government: Far-reaching alternative facing many criticisms- Structuring a World or Regional Government: Centralized, federal or confederal government?GLOBAL IGOs: FOCUS ON THE UNITED NATIONS: Best known and most influential IGO; Structure and rules are important for success and are consistently being challenged Membership and Voting Membership Issues: universal membership- Standards for admitting new members The Palestinian Question (can’t vote but can debate)- Successor state status USSR -> Russia (Russia inherited the USSR’s permanent seat and veto on the Security Council.)- Withdrawal, suspension, or expulsion Nationalist China (Taiwan), South Africa during apartheid policies violated UN Charter.  Voting Issues- Formula for allocating votes1. Majority/Supermajority voting: 1 state, 1 vote. M: 50% plus one; SM: 1/3. (It’s not fair. USA and Costa Rica which is not powerful have one vote each? Population?) 2. Weighted voting: population and wealth. (Imperial domination?)3. Unanimity voting: unanimous. Veto proposals by any of the five permanent members of the Security Council. Activities of the UN and Other IGOs Activities Promoting International Peace and Security- Creating norms against violence: charter limits war and armed forces.- Providing a debate alternative: membership in IGOs lessens military conflict; winning symbolic victories through the negotiation of differences in forums. - Diplomatic intervention: to assist and encourage countries to settle their disputes peacefully.  Inquiry, Good offices, Mediation, Arbitration, Adjudication- Promoting arms control and disarmament  International Atomic Energy Agency-promotes and monitors the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons- Imposing sanctions Diplomatic and economic- Peacekeeping: Early 2007, UN had mounted 61 peacekeeping operations, and they have utilized military and police personnel from most of the world’s countries.  International forces have never been so active. In 2006, there were 16 UN peacekeeping forces of varying sizesin the field at locations worldwide. UN peacekeeping forces have suffered relatively few casualties. UN was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988 for these sacrifices and contributions to world order.

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KSU POL 10500 - World Politics Final Study Guide: Part I

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