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Cold war April 30, 2014-Collective security-What is collective security?- Primary purpose is not to alter bargaining outcomes in favor of one state or another, but to ensure changes to the status quo, if they occur, happen peacefully - Forbid the use of military force by one member state against another - Attack by one member considered to be a threat to everyone- Entire membership is responsible for punishing aggressor - Collective response intended to deter aggressors, and if deterrence failed, ensured no state can benefit from aggressionCollective security and the UN- Security council of 15 states 5 of which are permanent (France, Russia, China, US, UK)- Everyone else gets 2 year term- Same influence increases credibility of security council by communicating agreement of powerful states to back actionHow does collective security work?- Mechanism triggered when one state attacks/ threatens another- If aggression determined, all members called on to act against aggressor state- Retaliation ranges from sanctions to military interventions (mediators, or troops)- Peacekeeping and humanitarian intervention bulk of what UN now does3 ways collective security fosters peace- Outside intervention changes likely outcome of aggression- Help resolve commitment problems by promising to monitor and enforce agreements- Neutral observers can determine aggression, violationsTwo major obstacles- Collective action problem: actions dependent on contributions by member states, contributing states incur these costs, international peace is a public good, free rider problem arises - Joint-decision making: need to determine acts of aggression, mixes general and narrow interestsmaking it complicated Does it work?- Work by providing rules and standards to address challenges of collective action problem- Collective security only to work when actors have an interest in peace- Existence of such interest is not guaranteedSucessful?- Only twice has it worked in its original layout (korea and Persian gulf)- 118 resolutions vetoed by Russia, after 1984, only 4 vetoed- 82 resolutions vetoed by US since 1984, 43 vetoed - Overall peacekeeping successful in Cambodia, el Salvador, Guatemala, Mozambique - Missions less effective when P5 are not united or combatants do not want UN intervention

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UB PSC 327LEC - Cold war

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