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Psychology of Adjustment – Spring 2014Final Exam Study GuideChapter 11: Gender and Behavior- What are the four main sources of gender-role socialization?-parents-peers-schools-media- What are the main role expectations for men?-achievement-aggression-autonomy-sexuality-Stoicism*image is becoming more relaxedo Problems with the male role?-pressure to succeed-emotional realm-sexual problems- What are the main role expectations for women?-the marriage mandate-the motherhood mandate-work outside the home*Drastic changes have taken place over the past 40 yearso Problems with female role?-diminished career aspirations-juggling multiple roles-ambivalence about sexuality- What is sexism?-discrimination against people on the basis of their gender (usually discrimination by men against women)o Examples Economic- job access; differential treatment Aggression- sexual harassment (unwelcomed conduct on the basis of gender- What is gender-role identity?-a person’s identification with the qualities regarded as masculine or feminine (strong association usually has negative outcomeso What is high levels associated with?-low self-esteem in women-self-destructiveness in men- What is androgyny?-coexistence of both masculine and feminine personality traits in a single person -not the absence of masculine and feminine traits-normally these people are more well-adjusted and experience better outcomesChapter 12: Development & Expression of Sexuality- What is the definition of sexual identity?-refers to “the complex personal qualities, self-perceptions, attitudes, values and preferences that guide one’s sexual behavior”- What are the four aspects of sexual identity?-sexual orientation-body image-sexual values and ethics-erotic preferences- What are erogenous zones?-areas of the body that are sexually sensitive or responsive- What hormones are involved in sexual differentiation?-androgen and estrogeno What hormone leads to male development?-androgenso What hormone leads to female development?-estrogeno What happens during puberty?-sex characteristics develop --- primary sexual characteristics: involve the reproductive organs directly; secondary sexual characteristics: are visible on the outside of the body and serve as additional signs of sexual maturityo What are examples of primary and secondary sex characteristics?-primary: ovaries, uterus, and vagina in females; penis, scrotum, and testesin males-secondary: breasts develop in females and appearance of underarm and pubic hair for both sexes- What sexual behaviors are impacted by hormones?-sex drive-sexual motivation-testosterone is linked to sexual activity - Why are parents unsuccessful in talking about sex?-they don't want to plant the idea of sex into their child’s mind-it might be awkward-don't think that their child is sexually active- What topics are included in comprehensive sex education?-increased use of contraception-reduced pregnancies-reduced high risk behavior- Are virginity pledges effective?-they are ineffective for reducing sexual behavior- There is a substantial amount of sexual material in the media. What is a positive aspect of this? Negative aspect?- What are the key gender differences in sexual socialization? (There are 5)1. men have more interest in sex2. the connection between sex and intimacy is more important for women3. aggression is more often linked to sexuality for men4. women’s sexuality is more easily shaped by culture and situational factors5. men more often take the lead, while women act as “gate keepers”- How are these factors related to sexual activity?o Age- oldero Religion- promotes abstinenceo Having a boyfriend/girlfriend- sexual activity is more likelyo Perceived peer behavior- you will act like your peerso Age of first intercourse- moreo Age at puberty- earliero Parent relationships- if parent is warm, rule-setting, and open, sexual activity is less likelyo Older siblings- older siblings influence younger siblingso Problem behaviors- legal trouble and drug useo Educational Expectations- lower expectationso SES- low SES- What are some positive (approach) motives for engaging in sex?-pursuing one’s own sexual pleasure-feeling good about oneself-pleasuring one’s partner- promoting intimacy in the relationship-expressing love for one’s partner- What are some avoidance motives for engaging in sex?-avoiding relationship conflict-avoiding hurting a partner’s feelings-preventing a partner’s anger-preventing a partner from losing interest- How has society’s attitude toward sex changed today?-more positive, liberal attitudes toward sex-number of sexually active teens has decreased somewhato How are rates of STDs different today?-increase in STDs and teen pregnancies- What are the three most common forms of contraception?1. condoms2. the pill3. withdrawal- What is the definition of a STD?-a disease or infection that is transmitted primarily through sexual contact- Gender differences in acquiring a STD/experiencing symptoms?-women are more likely to acquire an STD from any sexual encounter and are more likely to suffer more long term consequences such as chronic pelvic pain, infertility, and cervical cancer- What is sexual dysfunction?-impairments in sexual functioning that cause subjective distress- What are four common sexual dysfunctions?1. erectile difficulties- when a man is persistently unable to achieve or maintain an erection adequate for intercourse (most common cause is anxiety about sexual performance)2. premature ejaculation- when sexual relations are impaired because a man consistently reaches orgasm too quickly3. orgasmic difficulties- when people experience sexual arousal, but have persistent problems in achieving orgasm; more common in women; can occur occasionally or chronically)4. hypoactive sexual desire- the lack of interest in sexual activity; in men, it is often related to embarrassment about erectile dysfunction; in women, it is more likely due to relationship difficultieso What are common causes of sexual dysfunction?-common culprits can include: physical factors, psychological factors, and interpersonal factorsChapter 14: Psychological Disorders- What is the medical model of abnormal behavior? How is it different than previous views of mental illness?-the medical model: proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease-this view is in stark contrast to how mental illnesses used to be perceived-medical model has brought much needed improvement


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KSU PSYC 21211 - Final Exam Study Guide

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