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Jaymie Ticknor Intro Sociology 1510 Sect 900 24 September 2013 Chapter 4 Socialization and the Life Course Fetal Children children who have been raised in the absence of human contact provide some clues as to what happens during human development when a person has little or no social contact Socialization the process through which people learn the expectations of society The Socialization Process Roles expected behavior associated with a given status in society learned through the socialization people absorb their culture customs habits laws practices and means of expression Identity how one defines oneself both personal and social bestowed by others Personality person s relatively consistent pattern of behavior feelings predispositions and beliefs introversion extroversion Internalization occurs when behaviors and assumptions are learned so thoroughly that people no longer question them but simply accept them as correct The Nature Nurture Controversy Socially Constructed organization of society and the life outcomes of people within it are the result of social definitions and processes Innate inborn or natural Tabula Rasa means a human is born as a blank slate Interaction life involves a complex interplay between natural and social influences on human Socialization as Social Control Sociologist Peter Berger pointed out that not only do people live in society but society also lives beings in people Social Control process by which groups and individuals within those groups are brought into conformity with dominant social expectations patterns are established that become the basis for social order Individual in society surrounded by a series of concentric circles innermost would be self then family peers ridicule language cultural symbols institutions law religion economy education state and outermost would be coercion punishment imprisonment violence Conformity and Individuality Anorexia a pathological condition resulting from overly severe dieting The Consequences of Socialization Socialization establishes self concepts how we think of ourselves as the result of the socialization experiences we have over a lifetime Socialization creates the capacity for role taking the ability to see oneself through the perspective of another person Socialization is fundamentally reflective involves self conscious human beings seeing and reacting to the expectations of others Socialization creates the tendency for people to act in socially acceptable ways Socialization makes people bearers of culture two way process a person is not only the recipient of culture but also the creator of culture passing cultural expectations on to others Main product of socialization is society itself Agents of Socialization Socialization Agents people sources or structures that pass on social expectations Institutions established patterns of social behavior that persist over time level of society above individuals shape process of socialization Children are introduced to the expectations of society through their families Japanese mothers used objects as part of a ritual of social exchange emphasizing polite routines whereas U S mothers focused on labeling things Children watching violent television and playing violent video games tend to imitate the aggressive behavior they see in the media however they also learn different values and attitudes about violent behavior and they observe the society around them most likely they are influenced not only by the images of televised and filmed violence but also by social context in which they live The Family The Media Peers Peers are those with whom you interact on equal terms such as friends fellow students at school and coworkers at work Cliques friendship circles where members identify with each other and hold a sense of common identity Cohesive but also have an internal hierarchy with certain group leaders having more power and status than other members of the in group Being a token or an only places unique stresses on those in settings with relatively few peers from whom to draw support minorities in a dominant group Religion Children tend to develop the same religious beliefs as their parents switching to a religious faith different from the one in which a person is raised is rare Creationism set of beliefs that largely reject the theory of human biological evolution and instead argue that human beings that exist were created by a central force or God Socialization into creationist beliefs is more likely to be effective among people who grow up in small town environments where they are less exposed to other influences Those who believe in creationism are also likely to have mothers who have filled the traditional homemaker s role Conservative Protestants are more likely to use strict discipline in raising children but they are more likely to hug and praise their children than are parents with conservative religious views Michael Messner s research on men and sports Sports For men success or failure as an athlete can be a major part of a man s identity even for men who have not been athletes knowing about and participating in sports is an important source of men s gender socialization men learn that being competitive in sports is considered a part of manhood Playing or watching sports is often the context for developing relationships with fathers even when the father is absent or emotionally distant in other areas of life same older brothers and other male relatives also socialize young men into sports Through sports activity men learned homophobic attitudes fear and hatred of homosexuals and rarely developed intimate emotional relationships with men For women participating in sports typically develop a strong sense of bodily competence also give them a strong sense of self confidence and encourage them to seek challenges take risks and set goals for themselves stereotypically seen as lesbians or butches and may be ridiculed for not being womanly enough Schools The parents of children attending elite private schools often have more influence on school policies and classroom activities than do parents in low income communities Teachers respond differently to boys and girls boys receive more attention from teachers than do girls teachers also are likely to perceive working class children and poor children as less bright and less motivated than middle class children more likely to define working class students as troublemakers these negative appraisals are self

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UNT SOCI 1510 - Chapter #4

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