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MUET 3030: Final Exam Study GuideIndia - Caste System- Hinduism – More in South India- Islam – More in North India- Madras – former capital- Chennai – Capital, Big temple located here shown in class - Hindustani music – North India, Islamic influence, performed for royal courts.- Carnatic music – South India, Hindu influence, Temple based.- “Cine” Music – Bollywood music- Bollywood – o Music directors are the producerso Playback singers sing all of the music - Guru – Experts of interments, a mentor, apprentices live with guru, don’t pay money to guru, it’san honor to be a guru. - Nasal Aesthetic – Style of singing, very nasally - Drone – Gives ground floor for Raga, SA and PA are the most stable tones- Sruti – name for smallest division of the Raga- Bhajan – Hindu devotional song- Sabha – Culture of Hindu, club music- Kriti – Means creation, improved, can go for up to 45 minutes, 3 part song (Pallavi, Anupallavi, and Charanam), Carnatic.- Alapana – Improve of a raga that develops and introduces the raga, free rhythm - Tanam – Method of raga improve- Pallavi – Sprout- Anupallavi – After sprout- Charanam – Foot - Svara – Notes of the Raga- Rasa – 9 modes in Raga- Melekarta System – Southern Carnatic system for raga, 72 ways to get from SA to PA- Pillar Tones – Resting notes- Gamaka – Ornamentation, essential to personality for the Raga.- Tala – meter of Indian music, thousands of kinds, long, don’t have to be even. - Adi Tala – 8 beats, 4+2+2, Carnatic.- Sollukattu – Vocables for rhythms in Carnatic music.- Heterophony – Carnatic (singer and violinist), Gamelon music (various instruments) - Additive Rhythms – Larger rhythmic periods- Divisive Rhythms – Small rhythmic periods - Ravi Shankar – Sitar expert - Monterey Pop Festival – Ravi Shankar played there to help spread Indian music to the west- The Beatles/ George Harrison – Brought Indian music to the west- Shiva – Dancing god- Ganesh – Elephant head god- Saraswati – God of music and education- Meenakshi – Fish eyed goddess - Sitar – Indian guitar - Tabla – Small drum- Nagaswaram – Temple music, Ovo/Organ - Veena – Plucked string instrument - Mridangam – Two headed drum- Ghatam – Pot instrument- Sruti Box – Drone- Tambura – Stringed instrument Indonesia - Dutch – First colonized Indonesia- Javanese – Gamelon music in Java, Soft, played in open pavilions, conservative.- Balinese – in everyday life, Shadow Puppet shows, Gamelon music- Jakarta – Capital of Indonesia - Central java – Middle portion on the island of Java- Yogykarta – “Yogya”, Central city for music.- Surakarta – “Solo”, Central city for music.- Kraton – Royal court - Colotomic – Punctuating time keeping instrument- Slendro – 5 scale- Pelog – 7 scale- Wayang Kulit – Shadow Puppet show- Dhalang – Puppet master - Ramayana – Famous puppet story- Mahabharata – Famous puppet story- Bubaran – 16 between gongs - Ladrang – 32 between gongs - Irama Level – Dense tempo - Gongan – Melody notes- Balungan – Skeleton notes- Interlocking Rhythms – 2 sounds that make one melody (hocket)- Shimering Effect – Paired tuning - Kebyar – Most important gamelon style in Bali- Gamelon – Main Indonesian instrument - Colotonic Order – (from least to most played), Gong Kehong, Kempul, Kethuk. - Saron – Xylophone- Bonang – Elaborating instrument, was passed around during class- Kendhang – Drum, directs the ensemble - Suling – Flute- Rebab – Chordophone- Pesindhen – Woman vocalist Sample Long Questions1. Raga is more than just a scale, a series of notes. Describe this unique Indian musical structure, including its extra-musical features.o Extra musical features – Played only at certain times, 9 rosas/emotions, tied to the season, believed to affect the world. o Musical features – Many different pitches, specific ornamentation. 2. Discuss the similarities and differences between Hindusthani and Carnatic classical music.o Hindusthani – North Indian, Islamic influence, improve – based off of the Raga, played for royal courts, Music is passed down patrilineal. o Carnatic – South, Temple based, Hindu. o Instruments for each are different.o Similarities – Drones, Raga, Tala.3. Discuss the phenomenon of cine music and how it functions in Indian culture. Who are the musicians, composers, etc.? o Western Influences o Mix of all kinds of musico Musicians – Playback singerso Composers – Music directors 4. Discuss the function of an alapana.o Exposition of the raga in free rhythm 5. Discuss the Melakarta system and how it works. Include in your discussion musical details (eg., sruti, svara). What is a parent scale, a derived scale? o 72 parent scaleso Derived scale – a series of notes differing in pitch according to a specific schemeo Svara – Notes of the Ragao Sruti – name for smallest division of the Ragao Melekarta System – Parent Raga from which all other Ragas are created 6. How is the guru system different from taking music lessons from a music teacher in the West? o Live with the Guru, More of a mentor, Done pay the Guru (more of an honor to be a Guru)o At first just listening to the Guru, no playing yeto Tune instrument at the end (kind of like graduation)7. Define what a kriti is, including naming its three sections, and how it is used in performance.o Precomposed, 3 parts (Pallavi, Anupallavi, and Charanam)o Carnatico Used for improve, most common form of Carnatic concert music8. Discuss the development of sabhas, their history and current practice.o Culture Clubs to promote musico Carnatic style only (South)o Chaney is center of music and a lot of Sabhas are located there9. Discuss the difference between Javanese soft playing style and loud playing style.o Soft – Singing, Rebab is used o Loud – Only idiophones and drums, no singing 10. How is Balinese gong kebyar different from Javanese gamelan music?o Balinese is dynamic and has more change in tempo than Javanese. 11. What is the function of colotomic instruments in gamelan music and how does this relate to Javanese ideas about time? o Different instruments that divide up the cycleo Points in the song that coincide, come together o Time is cyclical and there are different cycleso 5 day and 7 day calendars 12. Discuss what Javanese consider to be the mystical properties of gamelans. o The metal is alive, if you don’t play it it will die o Names

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UNT MUET 3030 - Final Exam Study Guide

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