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CAMS 033 Review Guide for Final Spring 2013Aeneid ReviewWhat are the major episodes of the Aeneid selections we read? If Aeneas is the hero of the epic, what kind of a hero is he?If he is the founder of the Roman people, what is so Roman about him?Questions for KAMM reading:Ch. 4, pp. 98-100What was the Roman attitude toward Judaism under Julius Caesar and Augustus?Positive – Jews had helped Julius Caesar and so he granted them land and total freedom of worship. Augustus allowed them to observe their traditions and worship while still holding Roman citizenship.Where did Jews encounter opposition? Why?Mainly in Hellenized cities, although conflicts of culture emerged once Romans began to worship their emperors.Who was Paul? What did he do to make Christianity different from Judaism?More famously known as Saul of Tarsus. The belief that Jesus is God’s son and the returned prophet is what most strongly separated Christianity from Judaism.Ch. 7, pp. 148-53Was Latin the only language in Italy? Why did Latin become a common language?No, Umbrian and Oscan were also popular. Roman military expansion caused it to become the common language of the Italian peninsula, the Western Mediterranean, and the Balkans.What is a Roman book (liber < library)?A “volume” or roll, which was literally a roll of papyrus (up to 10m longx30cm deep) on which work was written in columns.What is the difference between poetry and prose in Latin?Prose widely used alliteration with rhythm used internally. Poetry was written in prescribed meter patterns, made up of short and long syllables (arranged in “feet’)What is the dactylic hexameter?The equivalent to a “line” in Latin poetry, was six ft long, each of one long and two short syllables, or 2 long with a break in the middle of the third foot.Ch. 7, pp. 155-61Who is Catullus? What kind of poems did he write?Born in Verona, moved to Rome in a wave of “new poets” and moved in high circles. Wrote about boozing, whoring, and generally "living it up”. We have just 116 poems of his, varying from 2-408 lines.Who is Virgil? What kind of poems did he write?Writer of The Aeneid. Arguably the most influential poem in any language. Wrote “epic poems”.What were the subjects of Virgil’s three major works?The Aeneid (Aeneis), Georgics (Augustus), and Eclogues.Ch. 8, pp. 172-80What were the two types of citizen soldiers in the Roman civil wars?Professionals – those looking for extended period of service, and those who were anxious to be discharged and return to normal life.What was the state of the Roman army under Augustus? He retired soldiers he didn’t see fit and soldiers would work for 16 years and then would spend 4 years in reserve and then would receive gratuity.What is a legion? How many cohorts, centuries, men? Who were the immunes?It is an area with military units working for the emperor. 10 cohorts, each divided into 6 centuries consisting of 80 men.How were legions distinguished?A legion was under the command of a centurion who was assisted by 6 younger officers (tribunes) and a senior professional soldier was usually the camp prefect. What and how you did something mattered more than who you were.What was the equipment of the legionary? What did legions do besides fighting?They had a bronze helmet, a skullcap inside, a leather shield, and two javelins. There were also arrow-shooters, onagers, and horses. They also consolidated and patrolled the empire.How did legionaries fight?There were men who “marched” and were on foot and used javelins and there were horsemen who were meant to head off attacks by opposition’s Calvary and to pursue stragglers. Goal was to break up and break though the enemy lines by sheer force.Where were legions posted? What was their purpose when there was peace? Many legions stayed at the same station for extended periods of time. They were meant to keep the peace and encourage Romanization within it, as well as allow for free movement of trade.Ch. 9, pp. 181-90What was the height of the Roman empire according to Edward Gibbon (who was Gibbon?)?Under the consecutive rule of Antonius and Marcus Aurelius (138-180AD). Gibbon was a writer in the 1700’s.Who were the Good Emperors? What monuments did they leave behind?Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Marcus Aurelius, and Antoninus. Hadrian’s wall, and Aurelius left a triumphal column in Rome that has his name on it.2Ch. 9, 191-206From 235-284, the Roman empire went into decline. Why?There was an almost constant changing of emperors because they kept killing one another off. There was also land lost during this time period to other conquerors.What measures did Diocletion take to restore the empire and make possible the new era of late antiquity?Split the empire into E and W and divided responsibilities between 2 people as well as an amount of other lower-level politicians. Set up imperial executive team. Strengthened the army.What happened to Rome as the capital of the empire?Diocletian only visited Rome once during his 21-year rule, thus the capital moved. Italy was split into 116 smaller units.How was the late Roman empire different from the early and high Roman empire?The rule was split between two main emperors; Italy was split into 116 smaller units (each governed by a rector), new tax system.What changes did Constantine bring about in the Roman empire?He considered himself a Christian and was thus the first Christian king. Moved capital to Byzantine. He was an anti-pagan, destroying their temples and outlawing their practices.Who did he defeat outside Rome?The Goths and the Sarmatians.Why did Constantine re-found Byzantium as Constantinople?So that the Roman empire would survive the inevitable loss of its western part.Who were Theodosius, Honorius, Arcadius, Honorius, Stilicho, and Alaric?Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of the empire. Arcadius and Honorius were his sons who officially split the E and W parts of the empire. Alaric was a Visigoth who sacked Rome in 410.Who sacked Rome in 410? in 455?410: Alaric the Visigoth. 455: the Vandals.Who were the Goths, Vandals, and Huns? Where did they come from? Where did they go?They were enemies to the Romans. Goths were from Germany, Vandals were an E-Germanic tribe, and the Huns were from E of the Volga River.Why did the Roman empire fall in the West? Odoacer killed Orestes (the emperor) and said that he would happy rule as king under Zeno’s jurisdiction.Did the Roman empire fall in the


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PSU CAMS 033 - Review Guide for Final

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