QC HIST 102 - World War I, The Great War (1914 – 1918)

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Rena LevinHistory 102Notes – 8/8World War I, The Great War (1914 – 1918)3 Causes of WWI:1. Power Blocs2. Colonialism3. Nationalism- Power Blocso Triple Entente comprised of: France Russia England- Russia and England form alliance after Bismarck resigns as Chancellorand is replaced by Kaiser Wilhelm II, who armed Germany and begancolonizing, trying to be like England (rebuild Germany’s navy usingdreadnoughts, bc British’s navy was most powerful)VS.o Central Powers comprised of: Germany Austria-Hungary- Colonialismo Germany and France fight over Morocco, almost go to war in 1898o Ottoman Empire fights of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia for territory in the Balkan Warso “Pan-Slavism” – aggressive nationalism in Serbia, led by Black Hands (violent group) who want to free all Serbs from Austrian rule 1848: Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to Franz Joseph II of Habsburg Empire in Austria) takes over 1914: FF and wife take tour of Sarajevo (heavily Serb-populated area), where they are both assassinated- Austria asks Germany for help, in case Russia attacks Austria sends ultimatum to Serbia, to find out who is responsible for assassination- Serbia asks Russia for help, in case Austria attacks Serbia does not agree to Austria’s ultimatum- Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia, while Russia mobilizes troopsto protect Slavs, as per Serbia’s earlier request- Russian Effort, led by Nicholas IIo Russia is not well prepared for war (lack firearms), but has large armyo Austria-Hungary is not well prepared for war (multi-lingual culture, poor economy)o Germany tells Russia to demobilize or else Germany will declare war on Russia, which they do, as per Austria-Hungary’s earlier requesto France declares war on Germany, as per Russia’s earlier requestSUMMARY:Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia  Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary  Germany declares war on Russia  France declares war on Germany (to be seen soon, England declares war on Germany, as well)- Germany Effort, led by Von Schlieffeno Germany asks Belgium (supposedly neutral) to march through their land, to attack France from behindo Belgium says noo Germany decides to go through it anywayo England tells Germany that if they go through with this plan, England will declare war on Germany (England cares bc Germany could use Belgium’s ports to attack England)o Germany goes through with ito England declares war on Germany- Nationalismo When all these wars are declared, nationalism is so strong that the armies do not need to enlist men- Anti-Waro Von Suttner – conducted peace conferences, but was ignoredo Marxists – war seen as capitalist scheme (“rich man’s war”) for accumulation of resources; nevertheless, most socialists joined war effort, regardless of working-classstatus- 2 Fronts of Waro Eastern Front Russia VS. Austria-Hungary and Germany- Very mobile – horses, rails, mountain fighting- 1914, Poland: Battles of Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes – Germany defeats Russia, and can now concentrate on Franceo Western Front France VS. Germany- France builds trenches against Germany, all across France borders- Germany tries to go around barriers, but can’t so they build their owntrenches  “Race to the Sea”- Old military techniques have not yet adopted to new advances, such as: New rapid fire machine guns Large artillery guns Barbed wire Mustard/chlorine gas – used by Germany in Battle of Ypres Airplane – used for reconnaissance Tank – used for obstacle-clearing (crush barbed wire) Submarine/uddenboat – torpedo hits and floods ships 1915: Germany sinks British passenger ship, Lusitania, carrying 128 Americans AND weapons to England!- Both armies employ full-frontal attack, resulting in major death toll 1916: Battle of Somme – fought in France- British Commander Haig wants to kick Germany out of France by shelling German trenches, allowing England to advance- Shells do not kill Germans, England does not advance- Haig doesn’t believe these reports and orders full-frontal attacks- Germans show up and use machine guns to kill 60,000 British soldiers- US Efforto US joins war because of Germany’s unrestricted submarine use and naval blockade of England and Franceo 1917: Germany tells Mexico that they will help Mexico regain territory lost to US (southwest) if Mexico helps Germany in the waro US declares war on Germany and Central Powerso Mobilization is a problem because of segregation – racism within militaryo Labor – half immigrant population returned to their places of origin- Russia Effort (cont’d)o Constantly defeated by Germany, who is industrially superior (despite Russia’s numbers)o Bad harvests; majority of army consists of farmers, worried about families and land 1915: Putilov Munitions Strike – munitions factory workers go on strike (Revolution #1) 1917: “Peace, Land and Bread” – want war to end, want their land back, want no more Mir, want foodo Tsar Nicholas II abdicates – what will the new government be? Parliament creates provisional gov, “Duma” – coalition, made up of several different parties:- Kadets (constitutional democrats), led by Kerensky, whose mistake was staying in the war, despite its unpopularity, bc he wanted to honor his foreign aid debts to France and England- Social Revolutionaries (agrarian reformers – want legislation for farmers)- Mensheviks (socialists, but not violent like Marxists – want more rights for workers, but prefer gradual change)- Bolsheviks (Marxists, small group but disciplined – want to overthrow provisional gov and to establish dictatorship for workers) Marx did not think Russia would be first nation to adopt Marxism bc it was not industrialized! Led by Lenino Lenin, who was previously exiled to Germany for revolutionary activity, returns in a sealed train to Russia to destabilize the gov and get Russia out of this capitalist war 4 Sealed Train Aims, in the event that Bolsheviks come to power:- Immediate peace with Germany by taking Russia out of war (Russia and Germany meet, Russia demands harsh terms, led by Trotsky)- No support for provisional government (achieved)- Call for general Marxist (worker) revolution in Europe- Seizure of large estates by peasants (achieved, gradually) 1917: Bolsheviks takes over provisional gov, Kerensky exiled (Revolution #2) 1917  1921: Civil War, led by Trotsky and Red Armyo 1918: Treaty of


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QC HIST 102 - World War I, The Great War (1914 – 1918)

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