KU COMS 246 - Terms and Concepts You Should Be Familiar With

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Terms and Concepts You Should Be Familiar With:Things that you should be familiar with from Exam #1 (the introductory materials):- What is communication?o A symbolic, interpretive, transactional, contextual process in which people create shared meanings.o Symbol+meaning=message- What is culture?o A learned set of shared interpretations.- How do we study ICC?o Two perspectives to ICC Emic:insider’s perspective. Etic:outsider’s perspective. o Three approaches to ICC Social scientific: a theory driven quantitative approach. Describes and predicts human behaviors.  Interpretive:Data driven. Qualitative. Describes human behaviors.  Critical: cultures are in a competition of power. Textual analysis of media. - Verbal and Nonverbal Communication o Five linguist rules Phonology: Phonemes are the basic sound units. Morphology: Morphemes are the basic meaning units. Semantics: the meanings of words. Syntactics: relationships of words/sentence structures. Pragmatics: contextual interpretations of sentences. o Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Language could determine the nature of our thinking.  Linguistic relativism:Linguistic characteristics and cultural norms influence each other.  Linguistic determinism: Language structure controls thought and cultural norms. Theworld we know is PREDETERMINED by that language of our culture. o Nonverbal Communication Functions of nonverbal communication: Provide info, manage impressions, expressemotion, regulate interactions, convey relationships, reinforce verbal messages.  Types of nonverbal message codes:o Physical appearanceo Environmento Body movemento Toucho Proxemicso Chronemicso Paralanguage  Universally shared emotions / culturally specified display rules- What are cultural beliefs, values, norms, and social practices?o Beliefs: - Confucianism in terms of harmony, hierarchy, and tradition in East Asian cultures- Hofstede’s Taxonomies: perspective, approach, and major dimensionso Individualism/Collectivism, Power-distance, uncertainty avoidance, Masculinity/Femininity, Long/Shortterm oriented, Indulgence/Restraint - Hall’s high-low context culture/communication modesPost Exam #1- Contact hypothesis (Gordon Allport)o Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination Stereotyping: a cognitive process. Assertions about the characteristics of all people whobelong to that category. Prejudice: negative attitudes towards other people that are based on faulty and inflexiblestereotypes. Discrimination: behavioral manifestations of prejudice.o The cause of intergroup prejudiceo The basic assumptions of contact hypothesis The lack of knowledge about outgroups leads to intergroup prejudice. More knowledgeabout outgroups will reduce negative stereotypes.o The four optimal conditions Equal status: no parties are subordinate of one another Common goal: working on same project/toward same goal Cooperative interactions: acquaintance potential Institutional support: environment supports and promotes intercultural cooperation. o Psychological processes for intergroup prejudice reductiono Be able to provide examples for the applications of the theory- Social identity theory (Henry Tajfel & John Turner)o The basic assumptions of the theory We define ourselves by social group memberships We achieve/maintain a positive self through social comparison o Group attributes vs. individual attributeso Three individual strategieso Group boundaries and the use of the strategieso Be able to provide examples for the applications of the theory- Acculturation theory (John Berry)o The basic assumptions of the theoryo What is acculturation A process between two cultural groups which results in numerous cultural changes in bothindividuals who are members of cultures in contact will experience various psychologicalchanges. o Group level changes vs. individual level changeso Cultural identification and the four acculturation strategies Four acculturation strategies: o Assimilation, integration, marginalization, separationo Consequences of the four acculturation strategieso Be able to provide examples for the applications of the theory- Cross-cultural adaptation theory (Young Yun Kim)o The basic assumptions of the theoryo Adaptation as a fundamental human activityo System perspective: (dis)equilibrium o Three theoretical components System view Progress Structuralo Be able to provide examples for the applications of the theory- Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT)o Speech accommodation theory and CATo What is accommodation?o Basic assumptions of CATo Psychological processes of CATo CAT and psychological evaluationo Be able to provide examples for the applications of the theory- Culture shock and adaptationo What is culture shock?o What is cultural adaptation (Kim)?o W Curve modelo Four theoretical perspectives to culture shock- Intercultural relationshipo The four dimensions of social relations that appear to be universal Associative vs. dissociative behaviors Superordinate vs. subordinate behaviors Intimate vs. formal behaviors Overt vs. covert behaviorso Friendship in the U.S. and East Asian cultureso Romantic relationship in the U.S. and East Asian cultureso Friendship expectations and styleso Coping styles in permanent intercultural relationships Submission style Compromising style Obliteration style Consensus style- Intercultural conflicto What is conflict?o What are the differences between intracultural and intercultural conflict?o Orientations to conflict Constructive Destructiveo Individualistic and collectivistic views of conflicto Conflict management styles Dominating Integrating Compromising Obliging


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KU COMS 246 - Terms and Concepts You Should Be Familiar With

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