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11/20/12The Great Revolt (Rome vs. Judaea, ~ 70 BCE)4 BCE – 6 CE:- Herod dies- Archelaus (son) succeeds, over his brother, Antipater, for about 10 years, until…6 – 41 CE:- Rome decides to rule directly over Judaea with its own administrators and governors (“procurators”), and remove Archelaus from powero Problematic period bc Rome sends relatively low-level, incompetent, money-hungry administrators to handle Judaea, who don’t seem to be up to the task of handling a tension-filled neighborhood Tension started when Rome established province in Syria (60 BCE), and governor (Quirinius) dispatched Roman officials, to get a sense of taxes in Judaea, leading to organized and ideological opposition to Romans, and only increases with Rome’s increased involvement in Judaea Josephus’ Fourth Philosophy = response to tax inquiry and in general, Rome’s presence- First 3 = Judaism is divided over these positions- 4th = political and religious opposition to Rome  Jews are aware thatRoman officials are regarded as gods, so to be submissive to Rome is therefore idolatry (political agenda, expressed in religious terms)- “Independence Movement” that says Judaea must be free from this religious suppression- Judaea itself comes under procurator-rule, but outlying areas (Galilee, Golan) are still ruled by Herod’s family- Pontius Pilate (Roman governor responsible for overseeing execution of Jesus)41 – 44 CE:- Interlude  Agrippa (Herod’s grandson) is returned to throne, victory lap in Alexandria, rioto Rules with Roman recognitiono Rabbis have praise for Agrippa (traditional Jewish perspective of thinking highly of Herod’s dynasty) because seen as a humble, trying-to-be-pious personality, recognizes his lack of qualifications for kingshipo EG – Agrippa reads Torah out loud to Jews, passage in Deuteronomy which details qualifications for king, realizes he is not legitimate, starts crying, Rabbis comfort him44 – 70 CE:- Agrippa dies- Rome returns to preferred policy of direct Roman rule- Results:o Relations between Jews and Roman administration diminishes rapidlyo Increased lawlessness (Roman policemen do not maintain law and order consistently increased robbery in the countryside, which is beyond the control of the hated occupying force of Rome)o Increased tension of rebellion, with the development of individual prophets, charismatic leaders who claim to see a great war coming against Rome (aka political prognosticators, presenting it as a Divine Will, raising false hope of G-d fighting on Judaea’s side)o Messianism = first appears here, right before rebellion against Rome Josephus discusses man named Theudas who convinces Jews to pack up theirbags, follow him to the Jordan River, which will part (like Moses, Joshua) for them to cross  Romans kill Theudas bc see him as bad for their situation Another story of taking people to the desert, to live there in its wonders Another story of the walls of Jerusalem falling down JESUS = powerful, anti-Roman sentiment coupled with following of charismatic, religious leader  idea of overthrowing Romans- Jews begin to feel like the Romans are favoring everyone elseo Samaritans (preexisting tension bc Samaritans are not viewed by Jews as Jews; Jews are not viewed as legitimate by Samaritans) attack Jews while Romans ignore the assaulto Greeks (cities established since Alexander) in Caesarea question rights of Jews in that area which is not exclusively Jewish while Florus (Roman governor) takes seemingly anti-Jewish stance and favors other side, following up his decision by allowing Roman troops to pillage, resulting in rioting in Jerusalem, and crucifies several important Jerusalem Jews  Florus leaves Jerusalem and Jews retaliate and kill the local Roman officials, and decide they will no longer offer sacrifices in the Temple, dedicated in the name of the Roman Emperor! Jews FTW  8/66 CE- Roman response:o 10/66 – Roman governor of Syria (most closely-located with largest army) marches to Judaea to suppress rebellions and reestablish Roman rule  defeated!o Winter of 66 – Judaea is free of Roman domination! Provisional, autonomous government is established (aware of the fact that it is in the middle of a rebellion, so mostly consists of military personnel;generals and military officials are set up around country to prepare for Rome’s retaliation)- Josephus dispatched to north, to help defend border against Roman invasion!  Rome is coming, Josephus & Co. draw lots to commit suicide, until it’s just the two of them left, who both reject suicide, but Josephus surrenders to the Romans when they enter and prophesies to Vespasian that he will become emperor, [|| Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakkai] who decides to keep Josephus around, spending rest of the war with Roman army, pleading with Jews to surrender (bc things will end up bad for the Jews anyway, so they’re better off surrendering) Clashes of Jews and Paganso 67 – Nero (Roman Emperor) appoints Vespasian (general) to suppress rebellion Vespasian slowly marches from Golan to Galilee, crushing Jewish autonomyo 67-68 – Moderate Jewish government in Jerusalem, in power from beginning of war,is replaced by extremists, “Zealots” (named by Josephus), who overthrow moderate gov bc seen as being too pro-Roman Josephus’ description of siege on Jerusalem:- Revolutionaries are still in charge, while Josephus begs the people inside the siege to surrender to Rome’s generous terms, army led by Titus (Vespasian’s son)- John (of Gischala; Gush Chalav) and Simon (of Bar Giora) = leaders of revolutionaries, Josephus’ greatest oppositiono More concerned with Jews leaving (as per Titus’ deal of leaving with no consequences) than with Romans entering  they kill those Jews who leave- Militant leaders flock toward Jerusalem! (John included; non-Jerusalemite, represents the hijacking of the war effort)o 6/68 – Jerusalem is only city left to be conquered, and some Herodian fortresses scattered throughout the land (including Masada)o 6-7/68-69 – Jerusalem conquest is put on hold bc Rome is in turbulence, with quick succession of 3 emperors (Nero commits suicide  political instability  military campaign put on hold bc they receive their orders from the emperor!)o 7/69 – Vespasian becomes emperor, leaves Judaea, appoints Titus (son) as successorand military general to finish Judean campaign, given vast resources bc they

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QC HIST 114 - The Great Revolt

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