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LING 111 Final Exam notesWeek 8- American Tongues?- Southerners and Northerners define themselves by not being the other- South viewed negatively because Poor Associated with rurality, looked down upon by urban people Socially acceptable way of asserting a dislike of poor people- Strategies of Condescension: When an empowered individual who speaks the socially legitimate language appropriates a subordinated language in order to gain somehow- Stereotypes of the southerner Ignorance Reproduced in society: in the media- Language Subordination The process by which a language variety comes to be valued less relative to another A subordinated variety is seen as illegitimate for public use Successful: Speakers of the subordinated variety recognize the subordination and see their variety as being of less value or negative- Impacts: Finding a job with a southern accent can be tough They are assumed to be stupid for growing up in an area that talks a certain way- Korean Standard Korean based on variety spoken in Seoul Gyeongsang dialect is perceived as the least standard and negative Language of subordination is complete in Gyeongsang Jeolla people have positive view- Different linguistic varieties are given different values and associated with different features based on perceived characteristics and stereotypes of that variety’s speakers “Bad” English is spoken by people who are perceived as “bad”.- These stereotypes are circulated by the media.Week 9Email- First sent in 1971- 182.9 billion sent a day- Only 15% of Americans do not use internet- Ways emails are understood Letters by phone: like a letter sent electronically Speech by other means: spoken language that’s written Mix and match: combines elements of speech and writing E-style: neither speech nor writing, has own characteristics Contact system: email is developing like pidgin, identifiable grammar, much variation- Decline of Public face (Baron) Public face: outward appearance we construct based on how we want other to perceive us. Decline after WWII: (1) reduced emphasis on social stratification, attention to upward mobility (2) disassociation of education from financial success (3) emphasis on youth culture- Transformation in American Education (Baron) Reforms: (1) Transformation of English composition (2) Dewey’s work on progressive education (3) Emergence of student-centered curriculum- Major Attributes of Email Informality of language style Assumption that the medium is ephemeral/temporary High level of candor- Features with Face-to-face communication Shared: informal, fast response time, intended for a limited audience, seems ephemeral, unedited Not shared: often no acknowledgement, can be forwarded without knowledge, not actually ephemeralTexting- Relatively new medium of communication- First sent 1992, 2011 41.5 a day- Competes with programs like whatsapp and Facebook messenger- Text messaging is not destroying our language. (Baron says it is)- Frequency of abbreviation Baron study of 11,718 words in instant messages .3% were online-lingo .8 were acronyms For text messages: 3% abbreviated words The ease of typing without abbreviation will lead to less abbreviation being used- Rolling: with the proliferation of electronic media, grammar is the big loser- Minor shifts in speech (Baron) (1) Incorporation of few acronyms in everyday language- Brb, lol, asap, rsvp, awol.- Abbreviations go back for a very long time- Roman Praenomen abbreviations, the senate and people of rome, tanakh, - Ampersand form et, $ from peso, euro and pound from lb, @ from at (2) Decreased certainty about when a string of words is a compound, a hyphenated word or one word- News paper  news-paper  newspaper (3) Diminished concern over spelling and punctuation - Spell check has made learning spelling irrelevant- Apostrophes are occurring less often (4) Attitudinal changes due to digital media- Shift 1: whatever- People care less about standards than they did before- People aren’t content with following English “rules”- Shift 2: Control- Technology enhance our ability to manipulate our communication with others- Social networks allow you to control how others see you- Baron’s two lessons: Lesson 1: formativeness in language goes through cycles, In some periods there’s more of a push for standardization, in others there’s less of one Lesson 2: Regardless of the swings that language goes through, there is room for individual schools or teachers to set their own standards.Social Media- Are applications that facilitate the communication or sharing of info between people in virtual communities or networks- Geocities in 1994, then Myspace in 2003, Facebook in 2004, twitter in 2006, Sina Weibo in 2009- Twitter 2006 1 billion registered users, 241mil active 300 bil sent, 500 mil daily 29% of millennial use twitter Getting data from twitter- Massive amount of data- Real time, info on demographics and trending of messages- Tracking on ground sentiment in Arab spring- Mapping use of regional slang - Study language change over time- Shows how words fall in and out of popularity- Ties certain demographic features to certain variables in language use- Vitality of minority languages- Helps understand how bilinguals use language Criticism of Twitter studies- Sentiment analysis is over simplistic and assumes that the use of certain words correlated to emotional status- Lack of knowledge about certain demographic features- we have such large amounts of data, we must be careful with our analysis of it so as not to be too superficial. Chomsky’s critique- Being limited to only 140 words means that you’re limited to only simplistic discussion of the issues Criticism of Twitter- English is being eroded- Fault of truncated sentenced sound bites and twitter- Twitter means that we now use less words that are long- Data doesn’t support these claims- Twitter is not shortening languages Story of hashtag- First use was in 2007, - 2009 twitter started using it- 2013 Facebook used them- Used to connect similar tweets together- Foregrounding salient information to contextualize a given message?- Passing a message along or connecting with some social or cultural movement?- A way of indicating sarcasm or humor?Facebook- Created in 204- Initially for Harvard, then Ivy League, then universities then in 2006

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UIUC LING 111 - Final Exam

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