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Persuasive speeches and Fallacies--Finals Notes CMST 20603/11/13Difference between an informative speech and a persuasive speech?-The attitude that the audience takes and what preexisting beliefs they bring to the situation-Problem-solution: informative speech-Problem-cause-solution- persuasive speech-They have to have some resistance to the topic-Need a little bit of force on your sideSteps in constructing a persuasive speech1. Come up with a "harm" a. Harm- what is happening (describe the situation)b. Why is that bad? Use an ethical theory (what tell you whether something isgood or bad; apply an ethical theory)c. This is an easy step if you pay attentiond. Hold back from what kind of change you want to see in the world; just think about what sucks, that's all2. Answer the "Inherency" questionInherency- Question: "Why is the harm not solved yet" ("Why does the harm continue to exist?")a. Can be used from small to big b. Brings you awareness of what actually needs to be changed in order to fix the situationc. Reveals little problems underneath your big problem3. Craft a solution (write a policy proposition)-You don't understand the problem unless you actually understand what's causing it***You have to go through this process no matter what type of problem you have, whether it be a teacher, or parents, etcPolicy proposition:-[subject of sentence] should [verb] [object]-Can add modifiers after if want. Needs to be a complete sentence-Should is the most important word. If you don't have the word "should" it is not a policy preposition-Ex. Police should stop violence4. Show how your solution solves the problem (solvency)-Pretend that your solution is put into action-Show the future with the problem going away-Ex. "Abortion should be banned"-"Solvency: Pretend that Row vs. Wade goes away and step by step show the world changing in the future-Solvency is showing the future each step along the way and showing the problem going awayMain points of a persuasive speech1. Harm (not difficult at all)2. Inherency (the hardest step in the process, plan to spend most of your time here)3. SolvencyWhat speech looks like-Introduction-hook-thesis (policy proposition)-previewMore detailed:Intro:-hook-thesis-previewBody:-Harm-Inherency-SolvencyConclusion:-Review-Thesis once more-Return to the hookExample time!TOPIC: Childhood ObesityHarm:A. Childhood obesity existsB. Taxes the health care systemC. Less productiveD. Early deathInherency- "Why are kids still fat"A. Fast food tastes good and is cheap B. No regulationC. More sedentary lifestyle (lots of entertainment without exercise)D. Picking up bad habits from their parentsThesis: Putting regulation into the fast food industrySolvency: Pretend fast food is now regulated and show us the future-The more specific you get in your thesis the more specific your solvency will be and the more effective you will be at treating this problemWhat Dr. Leslie is looking for:- Six sources for 1st and 2nd-Citing the same way (2 sources: print published and everything else)1. Print published: Name of the source, and when it was published3. Everything else: 1. how to locate the source and 2.when the source was lastupdated, and 3. How the source is credible (do this before you use the source)Rhetorical ProofsLogos- language, logic, argumentsEthos- credibility, trust worthiness, good will, expertise (as judged by the argument)Pathos- the use of emotion to persuade people Mirror neurons- Do 2 things at the same time1. Feel that emotion2. Recognize that emotion in other peopleUse this to induce emotional contagionHow do emotions spread?1. Face-Number of unique, recognizable facial expressions=100,000BASIC EMOTIONSSadnessAngerDisgustFearInterest/intrigueSurpriseHappy***to create more emotions, have to combine them. Ex. Horror is a combination of disgust and fear2. VoiceAlmost as powerful as the face at conveying emotions3. The body- arms/legs4. WordsRecall emotional episodesorRole-play a scenarioUse emotions to induce sympathy1. A person who feels sympathy must have knowledge that there is someone else who is feeling suffering2. The person who is suffering does not want to suffer-If you're dealing with someone who wants pain, need to use pity not sympathy, like if your like I don't want to feel better right now3. The person who feels sympathy must know how to help ***Lowest motivation level is sadness-Think of it as a step away from being depressed. When you're depressed, you don't want to do anything. Ex. Sarah McGlockin ASPCA commercial is not effective at all***Highest motivation is anger. Ex. Road rage, engage in risk3/15Fallacy-Error in reasoning-Think of them as counterfeit argumentsDeductive Arguments aka FORMAL FALLACIES1. Denying the antecedent (an antecedent does not include "if" or "then"**Modus tollensP1:[If a unicorn farts]P1:[Then there's a rainbow]P2: A unicorn didn't fartConclusion: There's no rainbow2. Affirming the Consequent***Modus PonensP1"" ""P2: There's a rainbowConclusion: The unicorn farted3. Affirming a disjunct***Disjunctive syllogismP1[Either you give me money or bad things will happen]P2: [You give me money] Conclusion: Bad things didn't happenInductive Arguments aka INFORMAL FALLACIES***How they psychologically operate on people Appeal to popularity-This argument justifies a claim on the fact that many people (perhaps a majority) believe that the claim is trueEx: If everyone jumped off a bridge would you?-Yes if friends are smart, if safeAppeal to the unqualified authority-This argument functions like appeal authority, except that in this case, the credibility of the arguer is not relevant to the claim-Credibility is used as evidenceAppeal to tradition-This argument justifies a claim on the fact that it has been accepted for a long time-Why has it been accepted?-trial and error before= non fallacy territory-test of timeAppeal to ignorance-This argument attempts to prove something wrong "smoking tobacco causes cancer"-Fallacy: that is not true because there is no evidence of it ^too far with lack of evidence to claim thatStrawman1. An original argument is made2. The person who makes the fallacy restates the original argument in such a way that he/she distorts it and makes it easier to defeat3. The person who makes the fallacy defeats the weaker version of the argument4. I win, you're wrong-The person who makes fallacy declares victory over the original argumentRECAP:Formal (deductive fallacies)-Denying


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LSU CMST 2060 - Finals Notes

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