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1Host Resistance review - Nonspecific, innate, natural immune system- no memory, involve leukocytes - Specific, acquire, adaptive immune system- memory, inc strength with repeated exposure involve leukocytes Physical barrier in aquired immune system- Skino Keratin serves as protective coating, acidic ph, high salt conc - Mucous membraneo trap, resists penetration, washes away, antimicrobial secretions (lysozyme)- Respiratory systemo Trapped microbes are moved away from lungs, alveolar macrophagesChemical Mediators - Antimicrobial peptideso Cationic peptides- produced by hosto Bacteriocins- produced by normal microbiota, lethal to certain species, produced by G+/G- cells - Complementso Facilitate and enhance phagocytosis (opsonization), activation of leukocytes, bridge innate and adaptive immunity(synergy with Abs) - Cytokineso Intracellular mediators, adaptive and innate immune system use them o Four types (chemokines, hematopoietins, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor )Leukocytes - Responsible for specific and nonspecific responses, derived from pluripotent stem cells from fetal liver and bone marrow.- H-stem cell from bone marrow goes two routes  myeloid and lymphoid - Lymphoid  lymphocytes (specific imm to foreign matter) T/B cells (specific)- Lymphoid  Natural killer cells (nonspecific)- NK cells- don’t kill foreign but do kill malignant cells infected with pathogens(cytotoxic enzymes), no phagocytic granular lymphocytes, nonspecific- B vs T cell B cell T cell - Bone marrow- Circulate or reside in lymphoid organs - Memory B cells rapid response - Plasma cells  Ab  opsonization - Thymus - Circulate or reside in lymphoid tissue - T-helper enh/sup imm cell actions- CTL  lytic enz/proteins kill or infected cells Organs and tissue of immune system2- Primary- lymphocytes mature/diff into mature B/T cells (Bone marrow, thymus )- Secondary- lymphocytes bind antigen  mature effector cells (spleen, lymph nodes, mucosal)Mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue - Contains special immune barrier- Antigen transported by M cell to lymphoid follicle where it is neutralized by B cells Phagocytosis- Monocytes, DCs, NPs, and MPs ingest and kill particles- This is done by the fusion of lysosomes to the phagosome that contains the microbes and destroys it. Defensive Reaction: inflammation - Innate inflammation- localized to area of cellular injury or death Specific (adaptive) immunity - Three main functions o Recognize non self o Respond to non self  Effector response – destroys foreign material  Anamnestic response- faster stronger imm response due to second encounter o Remember non self Branches of specific immunity - Humoral immunity- antibody mediated immunity, B lymphocytes activity based - Cellular immunity- cell mediated immunity, T lymphocyte activity based T cell development - Non specific antigen  MHC development on DCs  naïve T cell binds to DC replicate to form treg, th1,th2,ctl - T-dependent antigen eff in activating B cell - Cytokines will help T cell differentiate further - They do not need B cell to activate them, B cells need T cells to activate - Destroy non-self, CTL destroys infected host cellsB cell biology- Specific antigen B cell activation (Ig accept antigen “B-cell receptors”)  replicate/diff  plasma cells  Ab o Helper T cells produce cytokines that aid in growth o Two mech for antigen specific activation (T dependent, T independent )3o Only produces Ab  fight non self Antibodies- Plasma cells- secrete Ab to bind to antigen - Antibody- (Ig) glycoprotein made by activated B cells, BCR on B cell surface- Ab can bind to antigen that caused its productionImmunoglobulin Structure - Four polypeptide chains- 2 identical heavy chains+ (disulfide bond)2 identical light chains- Both chains contain different regions: o Constant regions “stalk”(CL/CH)  C fragments o Variable regions (VL/VH)  Fab fragments (both C and V)Immunoglobulin classes - IgG- neutralize toxins, opsonizes bacteria, highest conc- IgM – first responder, expressed as mem-bound Ab on Bcells- IgA- secretory Ab - IgD- on B cells surface, B cell recognition of antigen - IgE- anaphylactic mediating Ab, lowest concImmunoglobulin response - Primary response – 1st IgM low (very early), IgG higho Latent phase- no Ab, weeks later, longer than secondary responseo Log Phase- Ab, B cell  plasma cell o Plateau phase - Ab stabilize (not in secondary)o Decline Phase- Ab binds to antigen- Secondary response – 1st IgM low, IgG very higho Secondary exposure to same antigen o shorter lag , rapid log phase, longer persistence , Ab secretion higher affinity for antigenHypersensitivities - exaggerated imm response from second from antigen o Type I- allergic rxn, immediately after second contact, secret IgE and Mast cellso allergen enters LN B cell recognizes allergen with helper T cell plasma cell syn IgE IgE binds to mast cello allergen enter second time  allergen attaches to mast cell  degranulation triggers allergic response  symptomso Degranulation- antimicrobial cytotoxic molecule releasing from granules (secretory vesicle). The compounds would cause Anaphylaxis4Epidemiology Multifaceted science determine - Causative agent - Source of disease agent- Mech of transmission- Host and development factors that factors - Best control measures Terms - Sporadic disease- occurs occasionally, irregular times - Endemic disease –stead low-level frequency at a moderately regular interval - Hyper endemic disease – gradual inc, frequency below epidemic level- Communicable disease- spread from one to the other - Epidemic- sudden increase in freq above expected number - Pandemic- inc of disease within large population, international - Zoonosis- disease spread from animal to human - Evidence based approach: problem cause solution implementation assessment - Incidence- amount of new cases that occur within a specific population- Prevalence- total number of cases in a population - Morbidity- total number of infections from a disease Mortality- total number of deaths due to a disease - Common source epidemic- when individuals pick up a disease through a common source - Propagated transmission epidemic- disease brought into a susceptible population which is transfer to others Epidemiological methods - Surveillance methods o Review death certificates o Field investigation of epidemics o Investigation of actual cases- Remote

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KSU BSCI 30171 - Host Resistance review

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