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Sources of BeliefMethod of Tenacity (I)Involves holding on to ideas and beliefs simply because they have been accepted as facts for a long time or because of superstition.Based on habit or superstitionHabit leads us to continue believing something we have always believed. -- referred to as belief perserveranceEX. Cliche: "You cannot teach an old dog new tricks"More often we are exposed to them, the more we need to believe them.Advertisers take advantage of this method.PPTAccepting something as true because it has always been believed:“Opposites attract”“chicken soup cures a cold”FlawsInformation is not always correctDifficult to correct these errorsMethod of Authority/Faith (I)A person finds answers by seeking out an authority on the subject.Can mean consulting an expert or doing researchrelying on assumed expertise of another personEX. books, people, television, internet, newspaperExperts include: physicians, scientists, psychologists, lawyers, etc.Quickest and easiest way to obtain answers.Formal education is based on the notion that answers can be obtained from experts (teachers and textbooks).Pitfalls include:not always accurateauthorities can be biasedinformation could represent subjective, personal opinion rather than true expert knowledge.Person's high status does not make them an expertshould we listen to Blake Griffin about Kias?People usually accept an expert's statement without questionToo much trust in experts-- Method of faithparents and religionNot all "experts" are expertsPPTBelieving something because an authority figure (expert/someone you trust) says it is trueMedical diagnosisTooth fairy left money under your pillowFlawsInformation may be biasedOpinion or truth?Method of Intuition (I)information is accepted as true because it "feels right."Person relies on hunches and "instinct" to answer questionsMethod is quickest way to obtain answersUse when we have no information at all and cannot refer to supporting data or use rational justification, we often resort to intuition.Used to make personal choices.what should I eat? Should I go out?PPTAccepting something as true because it “feels right”It feels right to have both hands on the wheel when driving and so hands-free devices must be saferFlawNo mechanism for separating accurate from inaccurate informationRational Method (I)Involves seeking answers by logical reasoningBegin with a set of known facts or assumptions and use logic to reach a conclusion or get an answer to a question.Uses premise statementsfacts or assumptions that are presumed to be trueIf the premise statements are incomplete or do not totally represent the real-world situation, then the conclusion might not be accurateUses argumentsset of premise statements that are logically combined to yield a conclusionLimitationsPeople are not particularly good at logical reasoningPPTUse logic and reason to infer informationAll birds have feathersA flamingo is a birdTherefore it has feathersFlawsMust start with a known factEmpirical Method (I)Attempts to answer questions by direct observation or personal experienceProduct of the empirical viewpoint in philosophy, which holds that all knowledge is acquired through the senses.Use hearing, seeing, tasting and so onHorizontal- Vertical IllusionMost people perceive the vertical line to be longer than the horizontal line, but they are actually the same sizeLimitationsmake accurate observations but then misinterpret what you seeTime consuming and sometimes dangerous.PPTUses observation or direct sensory experience to obtain knowledgeIt snows in SyracuseEvidence basedHands-free device does not prevent accidentsChicken soup may cure the common coldFlawsSometimes we misinterpret what we see or have preconceptionsSome phenomena cannot be observedMythbusters video (W)Characteristics of ScienceEmpirical (D)Answers are obtained by making observations; systematic observationsObjective (D)Observations are structured so that the researcher's biases and beliefs do not influence the outcome of the study; Recognize and avoid biasPublic (D)The scientific method makes observations available for evaluation by others, especially other scientists.our observations must be available for others to evaluateuse replication- repetition of observationThe cycle of research and revision (W)Primary vs. Secondary Sources (I)PrimaryExperimental paper, peer reviewedAs close to the raw data as you can get without contacting the authors!TBfirsthand report in which the authors describe their own observations.empirical journal articlestheses and dissertationsconference presentationsSecondaryInterpretation of someone else's workOften more concise and comprehensibleBUT, sometimes incorrectTBsecondhand report in which the authors discuss someone else's observationsbooks and textbooks that summarize someone else's paperreview articles or meta-analysesProject ADAM (Legos) Lab (W)Structure of a scientific paper (I)Research IdeasLogical (I)It follows from facts or observationsPremise 1, Premise 2, Conclusion (hypothesis)Provides a rationale or justification for your hypothesis, and establishes a connection between your research and the research results that have been obtained by others.Testable (I)All variables can be measuredDefinition: Must be possible to observe and measure all of the variables involvedMust involve real situations, real events, and real individualsRefutable/Falsifiable (I)Can be proven wrongDefinition: must be possible to obtain research results that are contrary to the hypothesisCasual vs. Formal Sources (I) - Generating Hypotheses LabDefining and Measuring VariablesTheory (D)Statements about the mechanisms underlying a particular behaviorAn idea about how the world worksExplanation of scientific and how law worksHypothesis (I)A specific idea about the relation between constructsMust be testable and refutableHypotheses specify the variables to be tested in the research studyTestable & Refutable (I, D)- DONE ABOVEConstruct (I)hypothetical attributes or mechanisms that help explain and predict behavior in a theoryConcepts of interest, not directly observableex. stress, attention/concentration, lovehypothetical and intangibleinfluenced by external stimuli and, in turn, can influence external behaviorsOperational definitions (I)procedure for measuring and defining a construct.specifies a measurement procedure (a set of operations) for measuring external, observable behavior, and uses the resulting measurements as a definition and

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SU PSY 313 - Exam Review

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