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HeraclesThe greek heros “hero”Class of extraordinary humans (sometimes decended from a god + mortal =”demigods”Most associated with particular cities/regionsNOT always like modern idea of a heroNot always models of virtue, sacrifice, fair play, etc.Heracles or Herucles (different language)most popular of all greek heroesContradictory figureMan/god, when he dies he becomes a godHero/servantCivilizer/ bruteAttributes & gearHuge appetitesViolenceSexWineWeapons and ‘armor’Wood clubBowLionskinAlcmene and AmphitryonAlcmenePrincess, promised in marriage to AmphitryonAmphitryon: may not marry Alcmene until he avenges the deaths of her brothersWhile Amphitryon is away at war..Zeus’ trick:Zeus assumes appearance of AmphitryonMakes love to AlcmeneMakes their night together 3 times as longThe real Amphitryon returns victorious the next nightConfusions occursAlcemene later gives birth to twinsBy Zeus: HeraclesBy Amphitryon: IphiclesZeus and HeraclesZeus’ prophecy:“the man descended from me who is born today will rule all those around him”Hera’s revengeHera sends Eileithyia to:Delay the birth of HeraclesSpeeds up the birth of Eurystheus (Zeus’ great-grandsonThus Eurystheys will fulfill Zeus’ prophecy, not HeraclesHera sends snakes to Heracles cradleBaby Heracles kills snakesMadness of HeraclesMarries Megara3 kidsHera drives Heracles temporarily insaneKills his three childrenKills his wife MegaraDelphi says:Atonement=servitude to Eurystheus (now a powerful king)Heracles twelve laborsAthiloi “contests” or “labors”Assigned by Eurystheus, heracles’ master for 12 yearsDelphi: if successful, Heracles will become immortalOccasional parerga “side adventure”Labor 1: NEMEAN LIONOffspring of TyphoiosSkin invulnerableHeracles tracks lion to its caveWrestles and strangles lionThe LionskinHeracles uses the dead lions own claws to flay its skinWears lionskin from this point onLabor 2: Lernaian HydraLives in swamps of Lern9 headed water serpentIt’s blood is poisonousWhen Heracles kills one Hydra Head, two grow back in the same placeNeeds back-up!The torches of IolausHelped by nephew Iolaos, who brings torchesIolaos scorches stumps to prevent regenerationLabor 3: Cerynitian DeerMust be brought back alive from Mt. CeryniaSacred to Artmetis, tracks it for a yearCatches it, carries it back to EurystheusLabor 4: Erymanthian BoarMust be brought back alive from Mt. ErymanthosParergon “side adventure”: Pholos the CentaurHeracles a guest of PholosOpens giant jar of wine owned by all CentaursWhen Opened, the scent attracts other CentaursCentaurs attack! Heracles fights them off, Pursues them all over GreeceCentaurs flee to cave of CheironHeracles accidentally shoots Cheiron w/ poisoned arrowsCheiron’s long life comes to an endPholos drops poisoned arrow on his foot, diesHeracles returns the boar back to the mountainLabor 5: The cattle of AugeiasKing Augeias, son of HeliosVast herd of cattle; stables never cleanedHeracles says he’ll clean the stables in one day for 1/10 of Augeias’ herdHeracles diverts two rivers into the stables, cleans themAugeias goes back on promise of cattleHerackles returns after Labors, kills AugeiasLabor 6: The stymphalian birdsFlock near forest on Stymphalian MarshFlushes them with bronze rattlesShoots them down with his bowLabor 7: Cretan BullBull sacred to PoseidonBrings it alive to EurystheusThen lets it go free in MarathonLabor 8: the mares of DiomedesKing Diomedes: son of AresCarnivorous horseWounds Diomedes, feeds him to the horsesHeracles tames the horses, and takes them back to EurystheusLabor 9: The war-belt of HippolyteHippolyte: Queen of the AmazonsTribe of Warrior WomenDescendants of AresMaimed and enslaved their male children & captivesA + mazos= “breastless”Amazons cut off right breast when young.Get Friday notes!Heracles, slave of OmphaleHermes sells Heracles to Omphale, queen of the LydiansHeracles, domestic slaveAfterwaards, Heracles returns to Dechella, killsWhat Happened to DeianeriaLeft behind in Trachis, she knows nothing of Iole, and hasn’t seen Heracles for yearsLichaA, a herald, brings news of Iole and HeraclesDeianeria anoints a robe with the (poisoned!) blood of Nessus, and sends it to Heracles as a giftHeracles puts on the robeHeracles and his son Hyllos sacrificing to ZeusThe poisoned robe clings to Heracles’ fleshHurls Lichas to his deathHyllos brings Heracles back to TrachisHuge funeral pyreHeracles on the pyreDeianeria kills herselfHeracles gives bow to Poias, because only he would light the pyreMortal part of Heracles burns awayAchieves immortalityHeracles and Hebe, goddess of youth, on Mt. OlympusMinos, son of ZeusMinos marries Pasiphae, daughter of Helios (sun-god)Minos seeks the throneKing of Crete dies and Minos claims right to ruleSays gods favor him and he can prove itPrays to Poseidon to send a bull from the sea–will sacrifice itthe bull from seaPoseidon sends the bullMinos made king, but doesn’t sacrifice bullPoseidon grows angryEnter DaidalosAthenian architectTaught by AthenaNephew Perdix invents the sawA jealous Daidalos throws Perdix off a rooftopDaidalos flees to CretePasiphae and the BullPasiphae: wife of King MinosAn angry Poseidon causes Pasiphae to lust after the bullPasiphae enlists Daidalos to help herDaidalos builds Paiphae a fake cowPasiphae becomes pregnant from the bullBirth of the MinotaurPasiphae gives birth to the MinotaurMinotaur=Bull of MinosDaidalos constructs a labyrinth to enclose the MinotaurHeracles and the BullHeracles 7th labor (the Cretan bull)Heracles captures bull and takes it to EuystheusReleases it in MarathonTheseus, the early yearsAigeus, king of AthensAigeus is child;ess and answers in DelphiGets strange adviceStops in Trozen on way homeStays with Pitteus, who understands oracleGets Aigeus drunk and puts him in bed with daughter, AithraAigeus and AithraAigeus tells Aithra to raise their childAigeus hides sword and sandals under huge rockWhen boys grows up, brings them to AigeusAithra gives birth to Theseus, son of AigeusTheseus retrieves Aigeus’ sword and sandals: off to AthensIII: LaborsCorynetes “Clubber”Attacked travelers with his iron clubTheseus takes club away and beats him to deathPityocamptes “pine bender”Would pull down pine tree and make passersby hold itFlung to their deathsSceiron and his turtleLived by clifftopWould make travelers wash his feetThe beds of procrustesHouse by roadside with two bedsOne short, one longShort travelers

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Mizzou ANTHRO 1000 - Mythology test 3 notes

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