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Nutrition Study GuideIdentify the essential amino acids for adults Essential amino acids for adults – (cannot be synthesized in the body) 9 essential amino acids  (MATT V PHILL) (arginine used to be considered essential – not now) o methionine o threonineo tryptophano valine. o phenylalanineo Histadineo isoleucine o Leucineo LysineName the prime function of proteinsa) build new tissue during growth or after injuryb) upkeep and replacement of skin, hair, intestinal cells, and blood cells Proteins are needed for the growth and repair of all tissues in the body.  Functions of Proteins : For building new tissues in growing children, during pregnancy, in athletic training and after injury. For upkeep of tissues already built and replacement of regular losses such as skin, hair, and nails. Regulates internal water and acid-base balance. As a precursor for enzymes, antibodies, some hormones, and one of the B vitamins. For milk formation when mothers breastfeed. If the diet doesn’t provide enough carbs and fats to meet the energy needs, proteins are burned for energy.What food provides all the essential amino acids? Milk provides all essential a.a.Calculate protein needs on a per kg basis RDA is based on 0.8 g/kg of body weight per day.  Take your weight in pounds and divide by 2.2 to get kg.Name 3 important substances synthesized by amino acids within the cell.a) Enzymesb) Antibodiesc) HormonesCereal grains are low in which amino acid? low in lysine – not a complete proteinGive an example of 2 foods that when eaten together make a complete protein to make complete protein you need all the essential amino acids and enough calories Complementary proteins – 2 or more protein foods whose amino acid composition complement each other so that the essential amino acids missing from each are supplied by the other. Ex. Beans and riceName the legume that contains the most complete protein.  dried beans and peasDescribe positive, negative nitrogen balance, and nitrogen equilibrium Nitrogen equilibrium – the amount of nitrogen excreted equals the amount of nitrogen eaten in protein. The diet contains enough, or more, to meet body needs for protein.o * All essential amino acids must be present in adequate amounts. Positive nitrogen balance – nitrogen intake in food is more than the amount of nitrogen being excreted. o happens during growth periods and recovery from a disease Negative nitrogen balance – more nitrogen is being excreted than is being taken in from food. o Happens during starvation, untreated diabetes, fever, restricted diets.Give the rule about making a complete protein in the body Complete proteins are those foods that contain all the essential amino acids in the correct amounts and in the correct proportions to maintain life and support growthwhen used as the sole source of protein food. * All animal proteins are complete  All of the essential amino acids must be present at about the same time with enough calories to make a complete protein. Have to have enough calories! Name the cause of kwashiorkor.  Kwashiorkor is malnutrition caused by protein deficiency. Growth slows, hair loses color, and skin is scaly and had sores, body swells with edema, easily gets diseases. o found in kids (ages 2-5) who are malnourished PKU is an inborn error of metabolism. Defect must be found close to birth – can start low phenylalanine diet 1 or under – child will usually be ok. The child needsto know what to eat, can never grow out of it.Discuss carbohydrate loading for athletes.  Carbo loading is the increase of carbs stored as glycogen in muscle. During hard work, carbohydrate is the fuel used. Subjects are able to work 2-3 times as long on a high carbohydrate diet as on a fat diet.  If continuous work or sport lasts for 60 min then the glycogen stored in muscle isenough energy for short events.  If sport doesn’t last for 60 min then you don’t need to carbo load.  *Carbs won’t make you go faster, just longer!List concerns for planning a pre-event meal.  Since athletes are under emotional stress before an event, they may be 2-3 hours slower digesting food.  A moderate size meal should be served 3-4 hours before the competition.  Avoid sweets, raw fruits and veggies, dried fruit, nuts, high fat, spicy food, and caffeine.  Important for athletes to have 2 to 3 cups of fluid pre-eventName a disadvantage of feeding athletes sugar before an event.  the fat slows digestion rate and the sugar can cause an insulin overreaction causing decreased performances.  *Best source of potassium for athletes are potatoes.Calculate protein needs on a per kg basis for athletes The RDA for protein is given on a body weight basis.  The more the athlete weighs, the more protein needed. It is based on 0.8 kg. So called reference adult male needs 58 grams of protein.List 3 reasons protein supplements would not benefit trained athletes.  Protein supplements are unnecessary and may do harm.  Excessive protein supplements may lead to dehydration, inadequate carbohydrate intake, weight gain, and perhaps increased calcium excretion. Discuss water needs for athletes.  Dehydration limits the capacity to work and severe water restriction is dangerous.  A 4-5% loss of body water will cause a sharp decline in the capability for hard work and will decrease the attention span.  Athletes should be well hydrated and drink cooled liquid at frequent intervals.  Chilled liquids help bring down the body temperature and seem to be absorbed faster.List a reason why athletes may need more iron than the RDA. The RDA has been established to be adequate in iron for those consuming diets containing 3 ounces of animal protein per day.o Athletes need dietary iron to carry oxygen as part of hemoglobin and to form myoglobin in muscle. o Physical performance is reduced in iron deficiency even before anemia is present. Should salt tablets routinely be given to an athlete? Why? No, salt tablets are no longer recommended. o The intake of salt tablets may also increase potassium losses. Discuss ergogenic supplements for athletes Ergogenic supplements increased ability to do work.  Supplements are not needed and may do harm.  Caffeine will not improve performance in events lasting less than 30 minutes. Glandulars are preparations of glands and


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SU NSD 225 - Nutrition Study Guide

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