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HST-111 Review SheetPetrarch- -humanist Italian Poet who is often referred to as the father of the renaissance-Classist who recovers ancient texts, but more important for writing in his native vernacular and helping to establish vernacular language as a distinct art formMost famous work-canzinere “the song”Written as poems as unrequited love for LauraFlagellants- extreme religious movement that arose during the apocalyptic events of the 14th century in Europe- Famine, Starvation, plague, warfare (events)- Primary basis northern and central Europe- One of the ways they exhibit their extreme religious fervor is by whipping themselves- Travelling on pilgrimages- And doing pennants, for their own sins and sins of the world Columbian Exchange--Refers to post 1492 transfer of livestock, food types, and disease between the New World and Europe-Many beneficial effects on Europe- particularly in the matter of diet and food available, European diet was transformed and improved by the introduction of new easy growing and nutritious food types. - Disease introduced into Europe Calera, Influenza, Plague-wipes out people who had never before been introduced to them Candide- - satirical work by Voltaire - Attack on 18th century society particularly in France, and the corruption in the church and in the state- Attacks the privileges of the nobility, the cruelty of everyday living - Also a quest for an ideal society, presented by Algarado- Has contemporary references as well- Dr. Pengloss- “Necessary to cultivate our garden”Jacquerie- -1358 French peasant revolt occurs during the 100 years war, capture and ransom of French king John by the English has helped to dramatically increase taxes (tax revolt), also about the burden placed on the peasantry by the privileged, aristocracy and church who are exempt from these taxes, a revolt ultimately unsuccessful, and brutally suppressed by the nobilityHenry VIII- - English Renaissance King who embodied the ideas of personal monarchy by being a renaissance prince- Loved poetry, theology, he hunted, played music, ran the government- Also introduced the English Reformation, break of the English catholic Church form Rome in order to secure another marriage and a male heir to the throne of England - Put statecraft and the tutor dynasty ahead of the politics of the catholic church Elizabeth Settlement-- Takes place between 1559-1563- Is the conversion of England back to Protestantism, being a protestant state- Under the new reign of Elizabeth 1st and enacted through parliament - Is the moderate settlement of a politque ruler which allows some degree of toleration of Catholics, provided they did not promote their religious views - Act of Uniformity which reintroduced the book of common prayer - Act of Supremacy- that made Elizabeth he supreme governor of the Church - 39 Articles of 1563 which established the theology of the Elizabethan Church Johannes Gutenberg-- Guttenberg Bible- also called the “42 Line Bible”- made a printing press with his partner Johannes Fust that used movable metal type- Because Printing was a new and potentially dangerous innovation and possibly a good economic or commercial proposition, the bible was illustrated by hand to appear as if they were manuscripts Estates General-- The French National Assembly, consists of 3 parts - The Clergy, the Nobility, The Commoners - As France moved towards absolutism the last meeting of the Estates General took place in 1614, it did not meet again till the eve of the French Revolution in 1789,- 1614-1789 no - Recalled in 1789, it rapidly radicalizes and in particular the 3rd estate the commoners act against Louis 16th, when the doors of the house are bared to members entering, the 3rd estate moves to a nearby tennis court, and declares in the Tennis Court Oath that it will not despond until France has a new constitution-Ancien Regime-- Term used to refer to prerevolutionary France and sometimes more broadly to Europe in General- Can be classified as a society dominated by nobility, by the church and the clergy, by the monarchy - It is characterized by these privileged classes, by the notion that the advancement of status were achieved by birth and not through talent - Characterized too by the avoidance of taxation by these groups - And by the suppression of the peasantry Treaty of Westphalia--Treat signed by the European powers in 1648 to end the 30 Years War - It is characterized by the importance of Secularism rather then Religion- It is about the interests of the Nations State, outweighing the interests of a universal catholic, or protestant church- One example of this is that the Pope was not invited to participate, the exclusion of the pope is significant in rendering his opinion irrelevant-In this treaty each country was free to establish its own church, those not of the dominant religion (France-Protestants England-Catholics)Jan Van Eyck- -15th Century Dutch Paper who is famous for his use of oil paint, the exquisite detail rendered in his painting having to capture life to photographic images-Arnol Fini Portrait- most famous work- he appears as a witness to the Mercantilism-- Economic system and theory that states that the global volume of trade is fixed (only a certain amount of global trade, does not increase or decrease)- Countries could only improve their own economies by exporting more then they import - This leads to Government intervention in the Economy, and to the introduction of high customs duties on importsDutch Republic- state becomes is republic in 1558, and they revolt against Spanish Control - Would become the Golden Age of the Dutch - When the Dutch become a dominant economic power, based upon their colonies and merchant shipping - Is dominated by the Dutch East India company, stock market, stock exchange,bank of Amsterdam, importance of Merchant Class, and the flowering of Arts & Sciences-Thomas Hobbes-- Mid 17th century English Philosopher, theorist of Absolutism - Most important work was written in the turmoil and chaos of English Wars was called “Leviathon”- He argues that society needs to form a contract to avoid a state of nature, a state without government, this contract invevebitly leads to a single soverign power and a strong central governmentVersailles- - Louis 14th palace built outside Paris- Site of lavish spending, entertainment, a place of ordered, daily, structured routines- A palace that accomodates thousands- Especially the nobility- Not

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SU HST 111 - Review Sheet

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