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Final ExamChapter 6, Unit 20 and 23, Chapter 14Know and understand the following:Chapter 6: Lipids: - Lipids: o source of energy, needed for optimal health- What is the structure of fatty acid structures: o Alpha end- carboxylic acid, omega end- methyl group, chain length- short medium and long- Saturated fatty acid: 18:0- stearic acid-- Unsaturated fatty acid:- Polyunsaturated fatty acid:- Monounsaturated fatty acid:- Essential fatty acids: - Fat calcuations/AMDR- Food sources- Chain length: o short(4), medium( 8) and long(16)- Signs and symptoms Essential fatty acid deficiency- Cis fatty acid: o hydrogen’s are on the same side of fatty acid backbone- trans fatty acidso hydrogen’s are on opposite side of fatty acid backbone- Phosphates: - Phospholipids: o cell membranes, cellular metabolism, eicosanoid production, carriers of hydrophobic substances - Recommendations of lipids- Linoleic: o 18 carbons, two cis double bonds, w-6 fatty acid- Linolenic acid: o 18 carbons, three cis double bonds, w-3 fatty acid- How does cardiovascular disease develop:o slowing or obstruction of blood flow in heart or other parts of body- atherosclerosis and CVD- Stroke: o brain is deprived of oxygen and nutrients- TIA (Transient ischemic attacks): - Modifiable risk factors: o Smoking, Diabetes, Stress, Excessive Alcohol intake, Hypertension, Elevated blood lipids. Obesity, physical inactivity- Nonmodifiable risk factors: o Age, Sex, Genetics, Prior stroke or heart attack, Low birth weight. - How does nutrition influence cardiovascular health-B vitamins, antioxidants, etc- DASH diet- Risk factors for heart disease and how is it diagnosed- Phytochemicals- Cardiovascular diseases and developmentChapter 14-Life Cycle Nutrition- Breastfeeding-proso Benefits for mother  Postpartum amenorrheao Lactation Alveoli Mammary ducts Hormones- Prolactin- Oxytocino Benefits for baby Colostrum Disease risk Nutrient composition- Vitamin C and fluid intake- Appropriate wt gain for womeno Normal weight: 25-35 lbso Underweight: <28-40 lbso Overweight: 15-25 lbso Obese > 11-20lbs - Which vitamin is important to reduce spinal bifida- Colostrum- Alveoli- Low Birth weight- Frequency of feedings- Infant formula- Mammary ducts- Breast milk banks- Prolactin- Oxytocin- Pica- Physical changes with pregnancy- Components of weight gaino Fetus- 7 to 8 lbso Placenta- 1.5 to 2lbso Uterus and supporting structures- 2.5-3lbso Maternal adipose stores: 7-8lbso Mammary tissues- 1 to 2lbso Maternal extracellular fluids- 6 to 7lbs- Macronutrient for carbohydrate, protein and fato Carbs: 9o Protein: 2o Fat: 6- Pros for the mother and infant in regards to breast feeding- Pre-eclampsia and eclampsiaUnit 20-Know, Understand and Define - Antioxidantso Chemical substances that prevent or repair damage to cells caused by exposure to free radicalso Include beta-carotene, vitamin E and vitamin C- Vitaminso Chemical substances that perform, specific functions in bodyo Essential nutrients - Functions/deficiencies and food sources of water soluble and fat soluble vitaminso Water soluble B Complex Vitamins Vitamin C Only B12 can be stored in body Niacin, B6, choline and C cause ill effects if consumed in excessive amounts o Fat Soluble Vitamins Vitamin A, D, E, K Stored in body fat, liver, other parts of body Deficiencies take longer to develop Excess can build up in fat- 4 D’s of Pellegra- Osteoporosis-risk factors/treatment- Vitamin vegetarians should consider as a supplement that is found in animal foods- Which water soluble foods can produce toxicity-- Vitamins that are needed for energy production or release-are folate and vit B6Unit 23-Know, Understand and Define- Functions/deficiencies food sources of calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, fluoride, iodine, sodium, potassiumo Calcium Component of bones and teeth Needed for muscle and nerve activity Deficiency- Poorly mineralized, weak bones- Rickets in children- Osteomalacia- Stunted growth in children- Muscle spasms Food source- Milk, milk products, broccolio Phosphorus Component for bones and teeth Component of certain enzymes and other substances Needed to maintain right acid Deficiency- Loss of appetite- Nausea- Weakness- Confusion Food source- Milk, meats, seedso Iron Transports oxygen as component of hemoglobin in red blood cells Needed for certain reactions involving energy formation Deficiency- Iron deficeny/anemia- Weakness, fatigue- Pale appearance, hair loss Food source- Liver, beef pork, Bread, pastao Zinc Required for the activation of many enzymes involved in reproduction of proteins Component of insulin Deficiency - Growth failure- Delayed sexual maturation- Slow wound healing- Loss of taste or appetite Food source- Meats, grains, nuts, milk, bread, cerealso Fluoride Component of teeth and bones Helps rebuild enamel that begins to decay Deficiency- Tooth decay and other dental diseases Food source- Tea, shrimp, bread, fluoridated water and foodso Iodine Components of thyroid Required for normal brain development Deficiency- Goiter, thyroid disease Food source- Iodized salt, milk, seaweed, breado Sodium Need to maintain the right acid Helps maintain appropriate amount of water in blood Need for muscle and nerve activity Deficiency- Weakness, apathy, poor appetitie, muscle cramps, headache Food source- Foods with salt, cured foods, bread, milk, salad dres- DASH diet- Systolic/diastolic- What is high blood pressure/normal blood pressure- Sodium recommendations for general population and African-American, Latinos and Native Americans, as well as people with heart failure, kidney and liver

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KSU NUTR 10011 - Final Exam

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