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Study Guide:Nutrients that provide energy: Carbs, fats and oils, proteinsKcal value macronutrients: Carbs- 4 kcals per gramProtein- 4 kcals per gramFat- 9 kcalsAlcohol- 7 kcalsAMDR’S of macronutrients:Carbs: 45-65% AMDRFat: 20-35% AMDRProtein: 10-35%Difference between nutrient density & calorie density:Nutrient density: comparison of nutrient content and can be macro or micronutrient. Calorie Density: Compares ONLY the calories per serving of a food. i.e 1 regular bagel vs. 1 voodoo donutFDA requirements of Food Labels:1. A statement of identity 2. Net contents of the package3. Ingredient list4. Manufacturer’s name and address5. Nutrition InformationProblems with current Labels: misleading calories and serving sizes and lack of info about type of sugars. Key micronutrients not emphasized.Hunger: physiological sensation to eatAppetite: psychological desire to eatSatiety: the feeling of being fullAnorexia: physiologic need for food yet have no appetiteFood goes through three processes: 1. Digestion 2. Absorption 3. Elimination Nerve receptors send signals to hypothalamus (feeding center of the brain) to indicate if the stomach is full or empty. Blood Glucose Levels trigger the release of hormones- insulin and glucagonDigestion: break down carbs, proteins, fats and vitamins to smaller molecules so the body can absorb them.Mechanical digestion: physical breakdown of food. Occurs when peristaltic waves mix contents of stomach. Chemical digestion: enzymatic reactions that break down large food moleculesGI tract: stomach and intestinesSphincters: muscles that control the passage of material from one organ to the nextSalivary amylase (enzyme produced by salivary glands) begins chemical breakdownof carbs. Minimal digestion happens in the mouthPepsin: initiates protein digestion Gastric Lipase: initiates lipid digestionDigestion in the stomach: mechanical digestion to mix food with gastric juice and chemical digestion of proteins and fatsProteins: highest satiety value Carbs: lower satiety value than fatsAbsorption: process of taking molecules across a cell membrane and into cells of thebody. small amount of absorption occurs in the stomach. Villi: folds in the lining that are in close contact with nutrient moleculesBrush border: composed of microvilli that greatly increase the surface areaWater-soluble nutrients(carb, protein, minerals and some vitamins)- portal vein transports these to the liverFat-soluble nutrients(lipids and vitamins) enter the lymphatic vessels that transportthe nutrients to the bloodstreamPeptic ulcers: regions of the GI tract that have been eroded by HCL and pepsinHelicobacter pylori: bacterium that contributes to the production of gastric and duodenal ulcersCarbs: macronutrientEnergy source, especially for nerve cellsCarbon,hydrogen, oxygenGlucose- most abundant carb- produced by plants- component of disaccharides and complex carbs- found in bloodMonosaccharide: one moleculeGlucose, fructose, galactoseDisaccharide: 2 moleculesLactose, maltose, sucroseComplex carbs(polysaccharides): starch, glycogen, most fibers-starch; plants store glucose in form of starch- glycogen; stored in the liver and muscles, not found in food therefore not a source of dietary carb. Fiber: Dietary fiber(soluble fiber): non digestible part of plantsFunctional fiber: carb with known health affects which is extracted from plants and added to foods.Total fiber= dietary+ functional fiberCarbs= energyRed blood cells rely only on glucose for energyMost chemical digestion of carbs occurs in the small intestinePancreatic amylase: enzyme secreted in the small intestineMonosaccharide’s converted to glucose by the liverHumans do not have the enzymes necessary to digest fiber and mostly remains undigested and is eliminated with fecesLevel of glucose in the blood: 80-120 mgInsulin and glucagon control level of glucose in the bloodGluconeogenesis- the production of “new” glucose from amino acidsGlycemix index- a measure of a foods ability to raise blood glucose levelsRecommended Dietary Allowance(RDA): 130 g/day to supply the brain with glucose45-65% of daily calorie intake should be in form of carbs(AI) of fiber is 14 grams per 1,000 kcal in the diet daily. Proteins: large complex molecules composed of amino acidsContains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogenWhy do we need proteins? Cell growth, repair and maintenance. Hormones, enzymes; fluid and electrolyte balance; pH balance; antibodies to protect against disease; energy source. 20 different amino acids are used to make 100,000 different proteinsEssential amino acids: 9 of 20 are essentialNonessential amino acids: can be made by our bodiesProteins(amino acids)> joined by peptide bondsStructure: 1. Primary structure, sequential order of amino acids2. Secondary structure, spiral shape due to chemical bonding between the amino acids3. tertiary and quaternary structure, further holding into a unique three-dimensional shape that may be globular or fibrousDenaturation: losing shape. Results in an irreversible loss in protein functionIncomplete protein: doesn’t contain all essential amino acids in sufficient quantities “lowquality”Complete protein: contains sufficient amounts of all 9 essential amino acids. “high quality”Mutual supplementation: combining two incomplete proteins to make a complete proteinComplementary proteins: two protein sources that together supply all nine essentialamino acidsDigestion of proteins in stomach: hydrochloric acid breaks down protein structure and activates pepsin. Mouth>stomach>small intestine> liverProtein-energy malnutrition: a disorder caused by inadequate intake of protein and energy. Two forms: Marasmus& Kwashiorkor Marasmus: disease resulting from severely inadequate intakes of protein, energy and other nutrients. Kwashiorkor: disease resulting from extremely low protein intakeSeen in children in other countriesLipids: diverse group of molecules that are insoluble in waterThree types of lipids: 1. triglycerides: fatty acids are classified by Carbon chain length, saturation level( saturated, monosaturated, polysaturated) and shape. 2. Phospholipids: glycerol backbone, 2 fatty acids, phosphate.-Soluble in water- transport fat in the bloodstream3. Sterols: contain multiple rings of carbon atoms, block the absorption of dietary cholesterol. Fats: the lipid content of diets and foodsAMDR for fat: 20-35% of caloriesCholesterol:less than 300 mg per dayHydrogenation: hydrogenated vs. partially

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UO HPHY 105 - Study Guide

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