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COMM351 FINAL EXAM *rhetoric= truth plus its artful presentationKent CH.8- Active research= databases/surveys- Passive research= environmental scanning - Web is good for primary and secondary research- Surveys= one primary way organizations learn about their publicso Survey monkey/Zoomerang= example of online survey tool with free survey services - Social media= ability to connect directly with key publics - PR pro’s act as boundary spanners between organization and publico Success at building mutually beneficial relationship is based on understanding of organization and publics Explained by the Coorientation Model of Communication (CMC)- Helps organizations understand how individuals and groups external to an org. perceive issues- Coorientation theory- considers how groups see each other and what they believe other groups think about them o People are aware of: 1. The perception of self 2. The perception of the other 3. Metacommunication assumptions (what the person thinks the other person thinks about them)o coorientation can be internal and external- Kenneth Burke’s Identificationo Persuasion is based on a concept called identification Helping your audience understand how you are like them Consubstantiality- one of substance 3 types of identification:- 1. Identification by sympathy: make your audience feel positively toward youo ”I have been where you are”- 2. Identification by antithesis: invoke commonalities (congregation) and differences (segregation) o common goals, heroes, lived experiences- 3. Identification by unawareness: ethos..implicit identification that we possess as members of an orgo Implicit enmity that people feel for those who are part of different groups - Uses and grats (gratification): people seek out info and entertainment that has relevance to their lives and that they find rewarding- Community power theory- people turn to networks of family members, friends for advice o Behavior/attitude change is difficult without the aid of a supportive network o At the heart of community power= word of mouth Word of mouth= one of the most persuasive tools - Blog= web log/online diaryo Public documents o Blogs are great for environmental scanningo Written on short noticeo Bloggers have to be well-trainted o RSS- really simple syndication (feeds) Sort through information quickly based on preferences  Monitor resultso Aggregators= software applications that automatically compile data from blogs- Usenet= discussion group where people can post messages and engage in threaded dialogue on topics of mutual interesto Chat groupo Most users are fanatics of a showo Message thread- Searching on the webo Use “phrase searches”- words in quotation markso “and”= both terms…”or”= either result…”not”= exclude - Google scholar= database of scholarly sources/articles/bookso Easy for college students but PR pro’s do not have access to it (main drawback) - Lexis/nexis= research software/ o Lexis= legal data baseo Nexis= news database - Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (iCANN)- Universal Resource Location (URL)- Website credibility must be:o Truthfulo Agreeo General acceptanceo Credibilityo Timelyo Moral- Counter- device that keeps track of something (i.e. a clock)o Allow you to monitor how your website is being used - Cookie- small data file stored on the computer of a visitor to a website o Shows how users navigate a websiteo Track visitor information- Web analytics- tracking software o To improve performance of a website - “unique visitors” never been to a website before Kent CH.9- Types of public speeches:o 1. Persuasiveo 2. Informativeo 3. Ceremonial - best speeches are extemporaneous ( delivered with notes only)o more compelling - disfluencies- um, ah, like, you know o excessive gesturing - compelling sources need to be compelling to the audience not to the speaker- canon of rhetoric-o 1. Inventiono 2. Arrangement/Disposition- when, where, how, statisticso 3. Style/Elocution- language use, choice of wordso 4. Delivery- pronunciation, voice, gestureso 5. Memory- audience analysis- consideration of the traits of the audience as well as an examination of the audiences attitudes toward your topic o based on audience analysis, you make choices about content & structure - occasion analysis- nature of the occation, date and hour, location, type of meetingo why should my audience care- speech formats:o 10 parts: 1. Title, 2. Subtitle, 3. General purpose, 4. Specific purpose, 5.Central idea, 6. Intro, 7. body, 8. Conclusion, 9. Transitions, 10. Support o title= used in marketing materials..can be written at the beginning or end of speechwriting processo subject= residual message..like a bumper sticker messageo general purpose= goal of the speech..to inform, persuade or entertain often goal is to inform and persuade o specific purpose= what exactly the audience should come away from the speech with  infinitive statements o central idea- thesis statemento introduction- most important part  part of speech everyone pays attention to  use quotation, startling statement, ask a challenging question, tell a story, use a visual aid, use suspenceo transitions- phrases that get you from one point to the next  ex: now that…o body- three to five main points o conclusions- last chance to make message stick  memorable quote, dramatic statement, refer back to intro, challenge, repititions, emotional appeal- speech outlineso intro and conclusion are written outo each section should be about the same length o full sentences for every point and subpoint o keywrd outlineso hanging indents minor point subpoint tertiary point- support for speeches:o support for clarification- analogies, explanation, illustrations, restatement, specific instanceso support for proof- testimony, statistics - establish credibility early…ethos, integrity and good will - three parts to informational communication: motivation, clarification &retention- clarification is key- avoid abstract terms- monroe’s motivated sequence- attention, need, satisfaction, visualization and action (ANSVA)o organizing framework for speeches o attention= introo need= what the problem is that needs to be solvedo satisfaction= body of the speech..what the problem is///how his/her solution satisfies the needo visualization= speaker helps visualize the future  positive: what might happen if the advice is followed negative: the oppositeo

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