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FUNDAMENTALS OF POLITICS COURSE NOTES John Mil On Liberty Be able to summarize Locke Mill BE ABLE TO EXPLAIN THEORIES what role does reason play What is state of nature What does it mean to not be able to individual morality in state of nature Criticism What role does property play in each Too protective or too little protective Burke challenges Locke thought about o Mill wrote On Liberty because of thoughts that Hobbes and Locke hadn t Mill is obsessed with individual freedom liberty whole book Locke defends property own body labor product of your product o Locke believed that majority rule was enough modern examples contradict this Majorities don t think things true Only think about one another leads to mistakes o Mubarak elected by majority what went wrong Constitutions haven t been put together quickly enough to protect people o Syria Mill wants people not to be oppressed o Makes you make better arguments o No stupid opinions o Gets us closer to truth over time truth is in the middle Mill says that society has right to interfere when people are harming others or society is in danger argument for why state has stepped in to try to stop suicide Chp 5 Mill with things like alcohol fornication it is nobody s business unless you start to hurt someone o What if someone encourages doing something bad ex drink DOESN T CARE that is way you learn about things educational o You can t be a dealer person selling drugs is profiting from it o Poker games nothing wrong we are conscientious adults agreeing to an activity however a gambling activity is wrong making money encouraging bad behavior Registration is crucial declaring the use of things you have ex guns trying to track potential danger Children need protection need to learn Doesn t care how o To asses knowledge of a population give frequent tests to everyone discourages nepotism and corruption in work field o Not in favor of government forcing people to go to state school diversity is o You have a right to intervene in a family if there is harm being done ex not important being allowed to go to school Women Locke believes that women are partners in decisions with men Mill believes that women should have same right of men End of book government shouldn t be involved in people s personal lives seeds of liberal economic view of Milton Freidman laissez faire o Reasons Individuals can do things better Encourage individuality and personal development o If you want to succeed you need to go to right schools pass the right exams go into government service and then you ll have prestige might not bring a lot of money but will bring prestige John Locke Second Treaties on Government NATURAL RIGHTS all people have these rights they gain at birth o They live free from outside rule o Governs behavior people can act against people that wrong them o People give up some of their natural rights to enter into society be protected by common laws o WE ARE ALL BORN EQUAL REASON MAKES US EQUAL EXECUTIVE POWER needed to protect people CIVIL STATE has power over people only insofar as it exists to protect people preserve their welfare o United body of individuals under power of an executive that protects their PROPERTY WELL BEING o Built upon natural rights o LEGISLATIVE BRANCH makes laws that govern civil state govern behaviors o COMMONWEALTH combines legislative branch that makes laws to EXECUTIVE branch that enforces those laws o People can dissolve government if it goes against their interests government exists to serve the people o Locke refutes idea of divine sovereignty of kings putting entire power in hands of one person makes whole system fail STATE OF NATURE state of equality in which no one has power over another all are free to do as they please o Live together governed by reason without common authority o Doesn t mean people can abuse others everyone has natural rights o NATURAL LAW punishment fit crimes SAME LAWS FOR EVERYONE WAR state of enmity destruction one person s attempt upon another s life o LAW OF SELF PRESERVATION A person may kill another in self defense personal freedom was challenged o STATE OF WAR when people make designs of force against another without authority attacked party has right to war people enter civil state in order to avoid state of war when war is over both parties can resort to common authorities for ARBITRATION OF PAST WRONGS war in society is over in nature war isn t over until aggressive party offers peace for damage done NATURAL LIBERTY person s right to be ruled ONLY by LAWS OF NATURE SOCIAL LIBERTY right to be under no legislative power other than that founded by the commonwealth which functions for society s benefits SLAVERY No one becomes a slave voluntarily o Slavery extension of state of war conqueror holds captives into obedience PROPERTY earth can be considered property of the people to use for survival benefit o INDIVIDUAL PROPERTY there must be means for a person to appropriate things around him Each person has a body all labor performed with it when an individual adds own labor to a foreign object that object becomes their own because they have added their labor to it This kind of appropriation needs no approval of humankind everyone has right to appropriate things however one must take only so much as one can use This principle applies to land one has land can build on it adding LABOR DETERMINING FACTOR OF VALUE MONEY Useful for short term goods PATERNAL POWER even though we are born free we are limited by power of parents o This is because we are born without REASON which is what makes us survive in society o Parental power extends until age of reason 21 when we are able to function alone in society power given by NATURE POLITICAL POWER power that each individual in society consents to submit to commonwealth for protection of their property power given by CONSENT DESPOTICAL POWER absolute power of one person to take life property against their will power given by forfeiting of predecessor CONJUGAL SOCIETY between man woman Separate from political society Both have power over everyone in household MAJORITY governing factor in civil society by entering into society individual submits himself to majority abides to their decision rules o Problems lack of historical precedence paternal model people are used to submitting themselves to one person o People give up natural freedom to enter society in order to be assured protection of their PROPERTY o NATURE lacks ESTABLISHED LAWS IMPARTIAL JUDGES POWER RO

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