BC HS 088 - Lecture 20: World at War: The Second World War

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Lecture 20: World at War: The Second World WarI. Key Themes- What were Hitler’s major goals and how did they help his rise to power?- What were the motivations of Japan’s move for empire in Asia?- What were the primary factors which led to war?II. A World at War- Japan wants to build its own empire in Asia to fend themselves from WestIII. Rise to power-Nazi Party- Socialism was a growing force in Germany- Weimer Republic was unpopular from the start and had very little support – had to pay money to Allies from WWI- Gave Nazi’s room on the right to grow- In 1930, Nazis were a small time operation- Had very little interest in restoring traditional order- Nazis say people are not equal – superior races will rise and inferior will fall- Fascism in Italy is not quite as racist as Nazis- WWII was a war between races, and losing was a threat to German race-Adolf Hitler- Said reason germany lost WWI was because of the impurity of race dragged down Germany’s nation – weak, diluted, racially inferior people become major selling point forNazis following WWI- Under Fascism, race and state are one- Wanted to reclaim german sovereignty -lebensraum – Living Space- Unified race needed room to spread and grow – conquering territory in Europe will allowGermans to flourish- Slavs (Poles, Chzeks) had no use in Hitler’s opinion- Party began to grow in popularity but didn’t win many votes at first- In 1933, group of conservatives convinced government to appoint Hitler as the Chancellor – despite this powerful position he was limited by President Hindenburg (manwho appointed him)- There was a mysterious fire in government building and Hitler used this to blame the communists which enabled him to take power in Germany – achieved total control and Nazi party was named only legal party in Germany- He had any challengers killed, including former Nazis- After Hindenburg died, Hitler changed his own title to FuhrerIV. Restoring the Reich-Nuremberg Laws- Stripped Jews of citizenship- Most jews who had money fled- Nazis confiscated Jews power and money  Hitler used to restore Germany- Hitler Youth to incorporate Nazi world view – sports clubs as well – opposing citizens were arrested – resistance was a painful prospect - Although if you were of the Arian race, life was pretty goodV. Asian Empire-Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere- Desire to expand in Japan came from economic desire for expansion and control over rawmaterials – Japan doesn’t have many raw materials – desired markets- Raw materials and desired markets both existed in Chinea- Japan wanted to free the people of Asia from Western Influence- Ideas fit well with Japan’s ideas of racial superiority – growing nationalist movement in Japan influenced by Fascist movement in Europe- Idea that emperor was a divine figure and absolute blind obedience due to him- Japan invaded Chinese province of Manchuria --- although League of Nations condemned action – but didn’t sanction or punish Japan and Japan left the League – showed ineffectiveness and inefficiency of LeagueVI. Peace in our time?- War was fascism v. communism during Spanish civil war- Hitler uses this to push his claims further – tears up Treaty of Versailles- Gains access to the Rine- Builds army – signs alliance with Italy and Japan (Axis Powers)-Axis Powers-Appeasement- Giving Hitler was he wanted was better than fighting- By 1938, Nazis running out of money- Forced hitler to remilitarize Germany, knows he needs war- Hitler joined Germany and Austria into one state-Sudetenland - Area of Czechoslovakia - Hitler wanted germans there to rebel against Czechs - Munich agreement – give Sudetenland to Germany to prevent conflict – Hitler pissed because he wanted war- He invaded the land anyway, going against the Munich agreementVII. On the brink-Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact- Britain and France recognized the rise of Germany and promised Poland they will come to their aid if Germany invaded (1939)- Hitler and Stalin struck an agreement – non-aggression pact- Hitler ordered invasion of Poland on Sept 1, 1939- Sept 3, 1939 British and French declared war on GermanyVIII. Blitzkrieg-blitzkrieg-Lightning War-Germany launched strike on Denmark and captured them and Norway in order to help their submarines gain access to Britain-Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain resigned and replaced by Winston Churchill (1874 –1965)-Same day that Churchill comes to power is when germans launched their blitzkrieg on Britain to get Britain out of the war very fast – need to win quick war because they need money-Germans need oil to power machines – Britain controls middle east where most oil is located-Nazis defeat France in 6 weeks and then turn to Britain but not much of an army left in Britain-British Navy still very powerful and are not going to let Germans across – but Germans have incredible air force – air force beats navy-Battle of Britain- An air war in which Germans attack RAF- RAF fought back with the helped of radar – giving them an idea of where Germans were- RAF won- Germans forced to cancel invasion, had to turn attention elsewhere- Japanese vision to eliminate biggest western powers – France and Dutch already conquered by Nazis and British is weakening- Japan knows they must fight the US at some point and hope that one quick invasion in the pacific will turn the US away from joining the war – Pearl Harbor – they were wrong- Hitler says sooner or later they will have to fight the Soviets while their military is relatively weak because Stalin self destructed military by eliminating many leadersXI. Conclusion- Hitler rose to power on a platform of strengthening Germany’s economy and its military. This meant tearing up the Treaty of Versailles and pursuing a muscular foreign policy. This policy was meant to achieve Hitler’s other main goals which was bringing allGerman people under a unified German state and to win lebensraum for that state to expand into, thus securing the future of the German race. - Similar desires motivated the leaders of the Japanese Empire to extend their influence in Asia. Fear that Western Empires would never voluntarily allow Japan a place as a great power, these leaders believed that Japan needed to carve out its own sphere of influence that would give it the economic and military strength to compete with, and destroy, the Western Empires.- The pursuit of these goals by Germany and Japan

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BC HS 088 - Lecture 20: World at War: The Second World War

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