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Key Terms:Acheulian- term used to describe a type of stone tool technology that appeared 1.4 mya.Used by Homo ErectusBiface toolsFlatter and have sharper sides than Olduwan toolsRequires great skill to manufacture3Softer material absorbs more of the shock of the blowSuggested for huntingAnatomically Modern Homo Sapiens- It is clear they are in some way derived from archaic Homo sapiens, but the exact mode is unclear.Appeared 100,000 yrs agoHave large brainsVery similar postcranial skeleton to archaic homo sapiensHave high skulls and vertical foreheadsArchaic Homo Sapiens- Refers to early homo sapiens which are not yet in automatically modern formIndividuals that possess a MIX of primitive erectus- like traits and derived sapiens-like traitsHave low skulls and sloping foreheadsLarger teeth and face than AMHSRarely have chinsHave thicker bones and greater musculature(Homo Erectus) lasted until 200,000 yrs agoBipedalism- two footedEndemicLow but constant rate: a few cases are always present, but no major spread occurs.EpidemicTakes place over large geographic rangesPandemicEpidemic that takes place over large geographic rangesEpidemiologyThe study of human disease patterns and their causesInfectious/non infectious diseasesEpidemiological TransitionShift from infectious diseases to non-infectious diseases as the primary cause of deathFood Acquisition Model- Free hands allow individuals to carry food, especially useful for moving across open woodland and savannaEnergy efficiency is increased in upright walking looking for foodProblems with this model:Primates generally feed at food source; they don’t transport foodAnalogy: When chimps are seen bipedal, they are usually standing not walking or carrying foodBipedalism human style is less efficient than knuckle walking or running in other apesGracile-Later australopithecineSouth Africa (3-2mya)Later form of Afarensis (both robust and gracile)Large faces, but not as large as robustsCheeks flare, but not as muchNo crestsOne species of its known- africanusSoft foodHuman-like traits:Relatively large front teethNo diastemaUnhuman likeStill, very large teeth, though not as big as robustReplaced by A. Robusts in South AfricaHeat Stress ModelUpright posture reduces the amount of sunlight that strikes the body during the hottest part of the dayHigher wind speed and lower temperature away from the groundProblems with heat stress modelOther animals who live in Savanna aren’t bipedal. They just void the midday sunEarliest bipeds found at sites with forestsHominid-bipedalHominoid- apes and humansInfectious diseases- Diseases caused by the introduction of organic matter (virus, bacteria, parasite) into the bodyNon Infectious diseases- Diseases caused by genetic and/or environmental factorsLower rates in hunter gatherersLaetoli footprints-Show bipedal characteristics of non-divergent toe, heel strike, and well developed archTime and place suggests A afarensisMitochondral eve-Replacement modelVariation stems from a single female we are all descended fromMolar microwear-Wear on teethRobusts—chew on hard seedspitsGraciles – chew on softer foodsScratchesMosaic Evolution-Evolution occurs in stages, not all at onceMousterian-ToolsStone tool technology advanced from the earlier acheulian technology of H. Erectus and earliest AHS.Variation from region to regionUses a prepared core technique to manufacture toolsLEVALLOIS TECHNIQUEFlint nodule is chipped around the edgesThen the small flakes are removed from the top of the coreThen the core is struck at one end to split off the toolMultiregional Model-Ancestral humans left Africa over 1mya (as homo erectus) and spread to Europe, Asia, S.E. Asia, as well as some stayed in AfricaRegional H. erectus populations became H. Sapiens populationsHomo erectus spreads into diff. regions and within those regions homo erectus from that region and homo erectus from another region mate (gene flow), gene flow makes it so that all the regional homo erectus look relatively the same and as they evolve into archaic and anatomically moderns they look the sameReason for small regional differences (gene drift)Because within each place they are also matingNew World Syndrome-Name coined by Ken Weiss and colleagues in 1984 for a set of noninfectious diseases that appear in elevated frequencies among Native Americans.Noninsulin- dependent diabetesGallstoneGall bladder cancerObesityOlduwan-First tools used by H. HabilisLess diverse than Acheulian traditionAre not as sharpNot as developed as acheulian or mousterianEarliest stone toolsPaleopathology-The study of disease in prehistoric populationsStudy of skeletal remainsX-raysDiseasesPhysical traumaTreatments of diseaseChemical analysisPost-cranial skeleton-Brain was smaller but femurs were identical to humans, indicating upright walking came firstInvolves parts of the body that lie posterior to the head- indicates bipedalismSimilar to modern humansPelvis relatively narrowPredator Avoidance Model-When hominids left woodlands and moved to the savanna they were in danger from predatorsTwo legs would allow hominids to stand and see over savanna to spot predatorsProblems with this model:Bipedalism is not needed for this temporary task *apes do this all the time, so do prairie dogsBipedalism also increases chances of predators spotting you!Tree climbing ability would be better for avoiding predatorsPrimitiveTraits that have not changed from ancestral stateApe-like traitsSmall brainsLarge back teethDerivedTraits that have changed from ancestral stateHominid-like traitsBig headBipedalismLarger front teethFlat faceSmaller caninesProconsulEarliest ape of the MioceneReproduction model-Allows for more efficient transport of babies and greater ease in transporting food, thus increased fitness *reproductive successAllows more offspring through overlapping births, since more than one infant can be carried for a time, thus increasing population growthMore sex lead to loss of estrusRobust-Found din East and South AfricaEvolved from earlier hominid groups (Afarencis)DERIVED TRAITS ARE NOT VERY HUMAN LIKEHave tiny incisorsTiny caninesHUGE cheek teethHad crushing/grinding teethReally huge molarsHuman Like traits:Large back teeth with relatively small front teethNon-projecting caninesNo diastemaBicuspid lower molarsSpecies in EAST AFRICA:A. aethiopicusA. boiseiTake over—eliminate gracile!Secular changes-A change in the patters of growth across generationsEpidemiologic transition has contributed to

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MSU ISS 220 - Final Exam Study Guide

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