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What are the differences between RNA and DNA?- DNA, Deoxyribonucleic acid, is a double-helix shaped nucleic acid. It consists of four bases guanine, which pairs with cytosine, and adenine, which pairs with thymine. These bases are held together with a simple hydrogen bond. On the outside rim we have a sugar, deoxyribose, which connects to a phosphate on either side, and to a base.- RNA is transcribed from DNA by enzymes, and also is structurally similar. In RNA, uracil connects with adenine, replacing thymine, which is not found in RNA. Another notable difference in what RNA is made of is that it's sugar is simply ribose, which has an extra hydroxyl. RNA is also usually does not have the bases pairing up, (think as if you took a strand of DNA, untwisted it, and tore it in half along the base-pairs)What is a mutation? What can cause a mutation?• A mutation is any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA.• Mutations may result from errors in DNA replication and physical or chemical agents called mutagens.What are the four-nucleotide bases for DNA and RNA?- Adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U)What is the full name for DNA? RNA?- DNA- Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid- RNA-Ribo Nucleic AcidKnow where the sugar, phosphates, and nucleotides are located on the double helix.- Sugars are located on the outside of the double helix- Phosphates are located outside edges of double helix- Nucleotides are located inside the double helix.How can a mutation be good, bad or cause no obvious difference? 1. The type of change. 2. Where the change in DNA occurs. 3. If the change is detected and fixed before replication. 4. How it affects the organism and its survival.Who discovered the structure of DNA?- James Watson and Frances CrickWhat is replication?- When a cell or whole organism reproduces, a complete set of genetic instructions must pass from one generation to the next.What is transcription?- The transfer of genetic information from DNA into an RNA molecule. What is translation?- The transfer of the information from RNA into a protein. Where does replication, transcription and translation take place?- Replication takes place in the nucleus.- Transcription takes place in the nucleus.- Translation takes place in the cytoplasm.How can a mutation in the DNA result in a protein not functioning correctly?Know some examples of mutagens.- X-rays, UV lights, chemical spills, gamma rays, benzeneWhat is a gene?- A unit of inheritance in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses) consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence that programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. Mostof the genes of a eukaryote are located in its chromosomal DNA; a few are carried by the DNA of mitochondria and chloroplasts.What are homologous chromosomes?- The two chromosomes that make up a matched pair in a diploid cell. Homologous chromosomes are of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern and possess genes for the same characteristics at corresponding loci.What is zygote?- The fertilized egg, which is diploid, that results from the union of haploid gametes (sperm and egg) during fertilizationWho is Gregor Mendel?- He is considered the father of genetics. He was the first person to analyze patterns of genetics.Why did he use the garden pea?- He studied the sweet garden pea because these plants are easily manipulated andthey can self fertilize.What makes a good genetic model system?-What did Mendel do that was unique?- He created true-breeding varieties of plantsBe able to work genetic problems (see examples at the bottom of the review sheet) and use the terms correctly!Allele: An alternative version of a geneDominant: In a heterozygote, the allele that determines the phenotype with respect to a particular geneRecessive: In heterozygotes, the allele that has no noticeable effect on the phenotypeHomozygous: When an organism has identical alleles for a geneHeterozygous: When an organism has different alleles for a geneGenotype: An organism’s genetic makeup Phenotype: An organism’s physical traits True-breeding: A kind of breeding in which the parents with a particular phenotype produce offspring only with the same phenotypeLocus: The particular site where a gene is found on a chromosome. Homologous chromosomes have corresponding gene lociGene: A unit of inheritance in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses) consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence that programs the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide.Testcross: A mating between an individual of dominant phenotype but unknown genotype and homozygous recessive individual What is the P generation?- True breeding parentsHow do you produce an F1 generation? - The F1 (first filial) generation is the hybrid offspring produced in the cross pollination of P generation plants.How do you produce an F2 generation?- The F2 generation is the result of a cross between two F1 individuals (from F1 generation).What are the components of Mendel’s theory and what does each mean?1.<<<< There are alternative forms of genes, the units that determine heritable traits.2.<<<< For each inherited character, an organism inherits 2 alleles, 1 from each parent.3.<<<< If the 2 alleles of an inherited pair differ, the one determines the organism’s appearance and is called the dominant allele; the other has no noticeable effect on theorganism’s appearance and is called the recessive allele.4.<<<< A sperm of egg carries only 1 allele for each inherited character because the 2 members of an allele pair separate from each other during the production of gametes.What is the difference between codominance and incomplete dominance?- In incomplete dominance, the phenotype resembles a sort of blending of the two alleles. That is, if you have an allele for red petals and allele for white petals, you end up getting pink petals with incomplete dominance.- Co-dominance is when both alleles are expressed separately. Human blood type is a good example of this. The A and B alleles are both expressed, so you get the AB blood type. In the petal color example above, you'd get a flower with white and red splotches.Know examples of codominance and incomplete dominance.- Incomplete: when both alleles blend into the phenotype.- Codominance: both traits are visible in the phenotype.What is pleiotropy? Know an example.- Pleiotrophy is the impact of single gene more than one characteristics- Sickle cell disease is an exampleWhat is an allele?- An alternative version of a geneWhat does a circle represent

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UA BSC 108 - Notes

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