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What do all living organisms need to sustain life?- Oxygen and waterWhat is energy?- The capacity to perform workWhat are the different types of energy?- Kinetic (is the energy of motion) and Potential (stored energy)What is a calorie?- A calorie is the amount of energy that raises the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius.What is a Calorie? (there is a difference between this one and the one above.)- Calories are tiny units of energyWhat is the conservation of energy principle?- A principle stating that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be altered from one form to another.What is entropy?- A measure of the amount of disorder, or randomness, in a systemWhat is activation energy?- The energy that activates the reactants in a chemical reactionWhat is an enzyme and how do they work?- Proteins that speed up chemical reactionsWhat factors affect how well enzymes work?- Temperature, pH, induced fit, enzyme inhibitorsHow does an enzyme inhibitor work?- Some bind to the active site, as substrate imposters- Bind at a remote site, changing the enzyme’s shapeWhat is a receptor?- Mediated endocytosis: is triggered by the binding of external molecules to membrane proteinsWhat is ATP and what is it used for?- Adenosine Triphosphate; also known as the energy currency in all cells. - It is used How do you get energy from ATP?- Cellular respirationWhat is the difference between diffusion and osmosis?- Diffusion is passive transport and does not use energy- Osmosis is passive transport and takes place across selective permeable membraneWhat is hyper, hypo and isotonic?- A hypertonic solution has a higher concentration of solute. - A hypotonic solution has a lower concentration of solute.- An isotonic solution has an equal concentration of solute.What happens to red blood cells if you place them in a hyperosmotic, hyperosmotic or isosmotic?-Be able to look at two solutions and tell which is hyper or hyperosmotic.Be able to look at two solutions and tell which way osmosis will occur.What is a producer? Consumer? - Producers produce their own source of food- Consumers gain energy by eating things like plants and animalsWhat is an autotroph? Heterotroph?- Autotrophs are self feeders and make own organic matter (plants)- Heterotrophs cannot make organic molecules (humans)What is the difference between cellular respiration and breathing?- Cellular respiration takes place in the cells- Breathing uses the lungs- Glucose is the product of cellular respirationWhat is the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration?- In Photosynthesis, plants use the sun's energy as light to transform carbon dioxide and water into glucose. - In cellular respiration, glucose is ultimately broken down to yield carbon dioxide and water, and the energy from this process is stored as ATP molecules.What is the equation for photosynthesis? - Carbon Dioxide + Water  Light Energy  Glucose + Oxygen GasWhat is the equation for cellular respiration?- Glucose + Oxygen  Carbon Dioxide + Water + ATPWhere does photosynthesis occur? Where does cellular respiration occur?- Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts- Cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondriaKnow where the reactants and products of cellular respiration and photosynthesis come from and are used.What is an electron transport chain used for?- Shuttles electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP; located in inner membrane of mitochondriaWhat are the steps of photosynthesis? What occurs at each step of photosynthesis?- The light reactions convert solar energy to chemical energy- The Calvin cycle makes sugar from carbon dioxideWhy are plants green? Why do leaves turn colors in the fall?- Chlorophyll What are alternative forms of photosynthesis? - C3, C4, CAMWhat is a photosystem?- Light harvesting unit of a chloroplasts’ thylakoid membraneWhat occurs in the Calvin cycle?- Plants use energy that NADPH and ATP contain to build high-energy compounds that can stored up to a long period of timeWhy is cellular respiration important?- Cellular respiration is important since it is the process that releases the chemical energy stored in foodDefine Anaerobic vs. aerobic respiration- Anaerobic does not use air- Aerobic uses airWhere do the steps of cellular respiration occur and what is important about each step of cellular respiration?-How much energy is made from cellular respiration?- 32 ATPWhat is glycolysis?- The multistep chemical breakdown of a molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid; the first stage of cellular respiration in all organismsWhere does glycolysis occur?- CytosolWhat do you get out of glycolysis?- ATPHow many ATP's does glycolysis produce?- 4 Where do the steps of cellular respiration occur and what is important about each step?- Three steps: glycolysis is in the cytosol and other two in mitochondria-Why does cellular respiration use an electron transport chain?- It provides energy that powers the formation of ATPWhat is fermentation?- Fermentation is the anaerobic harvest of food energyWhen does anaerobic respiration occur?- Anaerobic Respiration takes place when while you are exercising because the blood cannot give the body oxygen fast enough. Thus lactic acid is produced which is later converted into glucose for cellular respiration.How much energy is made at each step of cellular respiration? - 2, 2, 32How much energy is made in anaerobic respiration?- 36 to 38 ATPWhat are some products of anaerobic respiration in animals and yeast?- Cheese, soy sauce, sour cream.What is the link between CO2 and global warming?- Carbon Dioxide causes greenhouse gases, which we need so the Earth won'tfreeze.What is the greenhouse effect?- The increase in global temperaturesDefine Asexual vs. sexual reproduction- Genetic variation in the offspring in sexual- Requires both sexes to participate in sexual- No mate needed. Many offspring produced quickly in asexual- No variation in the offspring in asexual How many times does the DNA replicate in mitosis?- OnceDefine Somatic vs. germ cells- A germ cell is a cell that gives rise to gametes of an organism that reproduces sexually.- A somatic cell-any cell other than a gamete- in a multi-cellular organism has a diploid number of chromosomes (2n). We inherit one chromosome of each pair from each parent.Define Haploid vs. diploid- Haploid has only one member of each pair of homologous chromosomes- Diploid body cells contain pairs of

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UA BSC 108 - Notes

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