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Unit V - MotivationEDPSY 14 – Study Guide for Test 3Unit V - MotivationLearned helplessness: Reached due to continued failure, will cause you to avoid things you have previously failed at. (Ex. Math) To fix= Attribution retraining: performance  effort, recognize improvement Arousal, nature of task, and performance: Being stimulated and “tuned in.” Simple Task: Increase arousal=increase performance. (Ex. Envelopes)Complex Task: Decrease arousal=increase performance. (Ex. SAT) Mastery/Learning goals: -Intrinsically focused-Approach new content with the mindset of mastery, motivated to learn.-Focused on learning > grades. Performance goals:-Extrinsically focused-Visual Appeal: motivated to look good.-Retention ability goes down (will not remember content)-Can be manipulated by teachers Social goals:-Gain status in peer group (drinking @ a party, running for class president for popularity)-Peers influence eachother-Example: Girls are better at math in middle school, but this changes in HS because it is “nerdy.” Work avoidant goals:-Motivated to just get it done (only b/c they have to, don’t care about goal)-Avoid challenges Self-regulated learning: Student behaviors that are learning-focused. (Listed below)Developing a learning-focused classroom:(Students)- goal setting: Set goals to accomplish by the end of the year.- goal monitoring: Keep track of goals.- strategies: Give structure of how to comlpete a task.- metacognition: Check youself as you go. (Teachers)- Model- Enthusiasm- Positive expectations Fear of failure: Fear motivator (look bad, failing).Behaviors: avoid (jokes), coping strategies, cheating. -Created by over-critical parents. Need for achievement: Attraction to challenges and learning/ favor difficultyBehaviors: take advantage of help-seeking strategies (seek professors & peers)-Created by supportive parents (effort/high expectations), constructive critisism. Attribution theory (3 constructs):Behavioral: external, reinforcementHumanistic: internal, self esteem/self actulalizationCogntive: internal and external, attributions (self efficacy, expectancy)Locus of control: To what you attribute your success or failure. (internal or external)External: luck, testInternal: effort, ability Task value (3 kinds):Attainment Value: extrinsic, success satisfies a need you have. (GPA, candy)Interest Value: intrinsic, you like/want to complete a task, no reward needed.Utility Value: learn something because it will heko you in the future. (Ex. Learn common spanish vocabulary b/c you are going to spain)Goal structures (coop., compet., indiv.):Competitive:High Ability: extrinsic/performance/abilityLow Ability: extrinsic/performance/ability helplessness Cooperative:High Ability: Intrinsic and Extrinsic/LearningLow Ability: Intrinsic and Extrinsic/Learning Individualistic: (This is the standard and what Dr. Stevens uses.)High Ability: Intrinsic and Extrinsic/Learning/EffortLow Ability: Intrinsic and Extrinsic/Learning/Effort and Ability Improvement:High Ability: Intrinsic/Learning/EffortLow Abulity: Intrinsic/Learning/Effort Teacher expectations: Should always be high/positive. Created by: wait time, giving hints, avoid student comparisons, flexible/improvement focused groups. Self-fulfilling prophecy: Teachers create this before knowing students’ ability. “Get what they expect.” -Starts low Students will decline to meet that level.-Starts high Students will rise to meet that level. Sustaining expectation effect: Teacher examines early student behavior then creates expectation. This will remain the same even if student performance changes. Extrinsic motivation: Outside motivation, reward. Intrinsic motivation: Tremendously powerful (and rare) motivation from within you. -Not always exclusive. “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket” Increased by rewards if: relate to quality of performance, recognize competence, social reward rather than material, activity does not already have extrinsic value. Decreased by rewards if: activity is already intrinsically motivating, not based on level of performance, there is competition for rewards, rewards are used too frequently. Unit VI – EvaluationNorm reference test (NRT): Performance is compared to other students (the “norms”). - characteristics:Strenghts: Compare students, cover a lot of material (breadth), makepredictions. Weaknessess (Not Good At): Measuring mastery, diagnosing instrutional needs, measure impact of instruction. - examples: SAT, IQ, Achievement, Aptitude, Readiness Criterion reference test (CRT): Performance is compared to an objective or criteria. - characteristics:Strengths: Assess mastery, diagnose instructional needs, measure impact of instruction. Weaknessess (Not Good At): Comparing studuents, covering a lot of material, making predictions. - examples: Teacher-made, Pretests, Readiness, Competency, Authentic Assessment Normal distribution: Standard Deviation 55 70 85 100 115 130 145 IQ .1 3 16 50 84 97.5 99.9 Percentile -In between 1 Standard Deviation from the mean (-1,1) = 68% of people. -In between 2 Standard Deviations from the mean (-2, 2) = 95% of people.Mean: The average Median: The middleMode: Most frequently occuring valueStandard deviation: Spread/Range Reliability: Test-Retest, Stability/Consistency of test scores obtained from the same students at different times (2 weeks). -NRT-Measured by correlation (standardized should = .8-.9) Validity: Is the test appropriate/valid for it’s intended use (measure what it is supposed tomeasure)? Standard error of measurement: ± 5 points on final results Summative evaluation: Final evaluation of students achievement on an abjective (“Howwell did you do?”)-Must be reliable, allow for comparisons, tied to formative elavulation-CRT or NRTFormative evaluation: Is additional instruction needed (“How well are you doing”)?-Discover strengths and weaknesses-Informative, frequent, timely, tied to

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PSU EDPSY 014 - Study Guide for Test 3

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