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HISTORY OF ROCK EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE VOCABULARY Chapter 4 Boogie a piano style popularized in the 30s usually based on the 12 bar blues and characterized by a rhythmically active and repetitive bass pattern left hand accompanying elaborate improvisations right hand Eight bar Blues a musical form related to the 12 bar blues although there are frequent variations to the basic pattern the eight bar pattern often has the chord progression where there is only one chord per bar Trade offs an improvisational technique in which players alternate the lead for a given number of measures thus players may trade or swap fours meaning they will alternate four bar improvisations related to the call and response practice found in African music and religious ceremonies Glissandi a continuous sliding movement through a series of musical pitches ex sliding fingers up and down a piano keyboard sliding over a series of adjacent pitches on a string instrument Double tracking the audio recording technique that involves singing or performing an instrumental part recording the same part on a different track then mixing them together to create a richer thicker sound The fact that the same part is played distinguishes this technique from over dubbing in which different parts are recorded one after another Glottal Stop the momentary closing of the glottis the opening between the vocal cords in the larynx to feel the glottal stop say the word uh oh used in rock vocals to subdivide syllables Melisma extending one syllable of text over many notes although used in many styles it is a central characteristic of soul music Dirty Saxophone a style of playing the sax characterized by a growl especially popular in R B and 1950s rock bands Hook usually a specific line of lyrics and its associated melody in a song that is intended to be particularly appealing and memorable the hook line is usually repeated often throughout the song sometimes a hook can be instrumental Payola an illegal practice in which payments or other inducements are offered by record companies to broadcasters to play specific recordings Blue Notes one of a set of tones used by blues gospel rock and jazz performers to add emotional expression to a performance which results from the dissonance these tones create within a major key context Cadence a brief harmonic progression that closes a phrase or section of a song Major Triad a specific type of three note chord in which the middle note is four half steps above the lowest pitch and the top note is seven half steps above the lowest pitch often perceived as brighter and happier sounding than the minor triad Minor Triad a specific type of three note chord in which the middle note is three half steps above the lowest pitch the middle tone is one half step lower than in a major triad often perceived as darker or sadder sounding than the major triad Chapter 5 Folk Music music of unknown origin that has been conveyed by the aural tradition from generation to generation some of the songs of the folk revival were true folk songs others were newly composed in the style of traditional folk music Motown the record company established by Berry Gordy Jr in Detroit thrived throughout the 1960s and into the 1970s with African American artists whose backgrounds were in gospel R B and doo wop styles by combining elements of these styles with Pop styles Motown and its various subsidiary labels appealed to a wide audience of both blacks and whites Calypso a popular style of music developed in the Caribbean especially Trinidad and Jamaica originated in the very early 20th century since the 1940s associated with the timbre of steel drums LPs a recording format introduced in 1948 that became the standard album format until replaced by CDs in the 1980s originally a 10 inch vinyl disc a larger 12 inch disc became the standard LPs turn at 33 1 3 RPMS and usually contain about 50 minutes of music 25 mins per side LP stands for long playing record Vibrato a slight fluctuation in pitch to enrich or intensify the sound the listener perceives a fast wobble in the pitch some popular music singers begin a given pitch with a straight tone no vibrato and then initiate vibrato Symmetrical Forms characterized by uniform regular and balanced lengths for example many 32 bar popular song forms can be subdivided into two 16 bar sections contrast such symmetry with some Beatles tunes that have irregular lengths Diatonic the melody and or harmonic use of the pitches of a given key s scale Echo Effects an audio effect that records a signal and then plays it back after the desired delay originally achieved using tape loops now accomplished digitally Overdubbing a recording technique in which one or more tracks are added to previously recorded tracks Theremin an electronic instrument invented around 1920 by Leon Theremin utilizes two oscillators and two antennas to generate a single tone the player controls the pitch and volume by moving hands in varying proximity to the antennas the result is an eerie or alien sound the most familiar usage is in Good Vibrations by the Beach Boys Block Chords a series of chords in which the notes of each chord all move simultaneously to the notes of the next chord thus all voices are dependent on each other no independent movement Dissonant chords that contain one or more dissonant intervals increased dissonance adds more tension or bite to a given harmony psychologically we are conditioned to perceive increased dissonance as uglier and increased consonance as sweeter A Capella without accompaniment Chapter 6 Beatles Skiffle folk like British popular music in which homemade instruments provided the accompaniment for simple songs although developed in the first half of the 20th century in the US skiffle enjoyed a revival in England in the 1950s several British rock bands most notable the Beatles began as skiffle bands Mersey Sound refers to the rather vague blend of rock and roll doo wop R B and skiffle produced in the early 1960s by Liverpool groups used interchangeably with Liverpool sound the name derives from the Mersey River that runs through Liverpool Beatlemania a term that was coined to describe the extreme frenzy of popularity related to the Beatles Beatlesmania both the phenomenom and the term began in England in 1963 and hit the US in 1964 Psychedelic related to hallucinogenic drugs or altered states of awareness Sitar a long necked lute instrument common to the classical music of north and central

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