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I. To understand biology (Study of life) we need a basic understanding ofA. Understand what science is1.How science is done2.What are the rules for science3.How it contributes to our culture. II. Unit 1 obj.A. Understand what science isB. Develop thinking skills to judge the validity and importanceC. Recognize common traits that specify if something is “living”D. Learn how life is based on chemical interactions between peopleIII. What is ScienceA. Human Endeavor-Human constructB. a body of knowledge about the natural world but also...C. A systematic process for building knowledge about the natural worldIV. Science a process of early learning in children?A. AIM:Learn about natural worldB. APPROACH: Gather evidence systematicallyC. Logic:Expectations (Facts) based on repeated observationsV. What else is science?A. ongoing and never finished-nothing is ever proven because future evidence could refuteB. A reliable standard for application_Theories are supported by the fact that they workVI. Basic and applied scienceA. Science1.can be basic-goal to build knowledge and understanding without particular endpoint2.can be applied-solve a particular problem or develop a technology3.Generally is bothVII. What is natural?A. Natural1.Any element of the physical universe: Matter, forces that act on matter, en-ergy, the constituents of the biological world, human society and its productsB. Why only the natural world?1.Because it behaves in predictable waysC. What is supernatural?1.Anything outside the physical universe2.The existence of supernatural entities cannot be tested scientifically and therefore fall outside the realm of scienceD. Misconception1.Science contradicts the existence of God.a)Correction(1) Because science deals only with natural phenomena and explanations, it cannot support or contradict the existence of supernatural entities-like God.2.Science and religion deal with different realms of human experience.VIII. Science can not..A. Make moral judgementsB. Make aesthetic judgements (red more beautiful than blue)C. specify how scientificallyIX. What is a scientific hypothesis?A. Testable and falsifiable explanation for a scientific observation or question1.Testable: Can be supported or rejected by carefully designed experiments or non-ex-perimental studies2.falsifiable: Can be ruled out by data to show---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8-28-12Hypothesis- Proposed explanation for a narrow set of phenomenaTheory-Powerful explanation for a wide range of phenomenaScientific law- Statement of a relation that expresses a fundamental principle of science. Laws differ from scientific theories in that they do not provide a mechanism or explanation. Theories explain why they are.Theories are 1)extensively tested, 2)fully supported by all available data. 3)They are widely accepted in the scientific community. 4) They can be used to make broad-based predictions5) Rarely altered, but can be with unexpected new evidenceEXP of theories: Conservation of matter, conservation of energy, gravitational theoryWhat makes a good scientific theory?1. Closely explains evidence2. explains many lines of evidence3. clarifies evidence that was not understood4. generates more testable expectations5. can be applied broadly in variety of conditions6. explains evidence in most efficient way7. consistent with existing theoriesProcess of science1. Idea-Formulate a hypothesis2. expectations-Devise a testable prediction3. Actual observations-gather evidence by experimentingHow do scientists draw conclusions?-To properly evaluate a scientific claim, we need to look closely at how the science was done.-control versus experimental groups?-Randomization of other variables?-Placebo effect?-Sample size and statistical significance?-side effects?-interpreting correlation versus causation?-Control group they give nothing and no manipulation-Experimental group experiences manipulation-Correlation consistent relationship between variableswrap-up-Best evidence they have at any one time-May be modified in the future as other scientists ask different questions or use improved technology to uncover better data-Confidence in scientific


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Mizzou BIO SC 1010 - Notes

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