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9/26/13PSY-280 notes- in science, if it can’t be measured then it doesn’t exist- observation – is controlled and systematic; used to see if x causes y- thinking like a researcher- skepticism regarding claims that talk about the cause of behavior andmental processes- do this by looking for evidence across many studies- “people who watch certain TV are more satisfied as if they had morefriends. Evolution adaptation” (Kanazawa, 2002)…. People who looked at his study realized he was measuring life satisfaction instead and his found associations disappeared- science occurs in at least 3 contexts.. take into account1. historical: what was going on in time; ideas of the age- cohort effect: basically people in the same generation are influenced/ affected by the same things2. sociocultural: ideas and values of society; ethnocentrism… what we think is important to look at and study might not be as important to others3. moral: ethical behavior in search of truth- research questions- what should I study?- how do I develop a hypothesis to test in my research?- is my research question a good one?- scientific method- empirical: requires systematic controlled observation- Clever Hans (the horse that could count)- we gain more control when we use experimentation- experiments- manipulate one of more factors and observe these manipulations on behaviors- independent variable (IV): the controlled variable- dependent variable (DV): measure of behaviors used to assess the effect of the independent variable- operational definition: explains concept solely in terms of observable procedures used to produce and measure that construct(-basically making up a definition that makes something true, and when any person looks at the same thing you are they’ll get the exact same number/ answer)- construct: concept or idea – intelligence, depression, memory, aggression- example: what does being scared constitute? (so then you make an operational definition for it)- measurement -- we use instruments for both physical and psychological measurement in psych- reliability: consistency; measuring in the same way every single time.- validity: measures what it claims to measure; like how Kanazawa was measuring life satisfaction instead of what he claimed to be studying – he wasn’t valid in his correlation^ two most important things about measurement- scientific hypothesis is like a tentative explanation- conduct experiments to test our hypothesis- must be TESTABLE – concepts must be clearly defined and measures- example: Freud and his stages.. can’t really be tested- cannot be circular- example: a kid has ADD because he’s distracted in class or he’s distracted in class because he has ADD?- can only be appealed by ideas that are real, not external forces- example: “It was the devils that got into her head and made her kill someone”- goals of the scientific method1. description: general laws applying to diverse populations (DSM-5)- qualitative: meaning based- example: 10 people describe their hallucinations in narrativesand a person generalizes all of the narratives to an entire population- quantitative: number based (numeric)2. prediction: correlation (when scores on one variable can be used to predict another) – don’t need to know why3. explanation: understand phenomena and identify causes; plausible alternatives too4. application: apply to improve people’s lives in practice; identify who is at risk/ find


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DREXEL PSY 260 - Notes

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