LSU PSYC 1001 - Ch. 3 Lecture Outline: Sensation and Perception

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Ch. 3 Lecture Outline: Sensation and Perception- What is sensation? The activation of receptors in the various sense organs- ears, eyes, nose, skin, taste budso Sensory receptors- specialized forms of neurons; the cells that make up the nervous systemo Transduction- conversion of outside stimuli into a neural signal in the braino Just noticeable difference (JND)- the smallest difference between 2 stimuli that is detectable 50 percent of the timeo Absolute threshold- the smallest amount of energy needed for a person to consciously detect a stimulus 50 percent of the time it is percent- What are subliminal stimuli, and what affect can they have on us? Stimuli that are below the level of conscious awareness… Just strong enough to activate the sensory receptors, but not strong enough for people to be consciously aware of them. Does not work in advertising.o Supraliminal stimuli- able to be consciously aware of but due to the fact tht your attention is directed elsewhere you are not. Above absolute threshold. Example- engrossed in a book yet someone is calling your name and after 6 times you say whhaaaa? - What is habituation and sensory adaptation? How are they different? Habituation- the tendency of the brain to stop attending to constant, unchanging informationSensory adaptation: the tendency of sensory receptor cells to become less responsive to a stimulus that is unchanging. o Microsaccades- constant movement of the eyesEyes:- What are the properties of light? Both waves and particleso Brightness, color, saturation------ three aspects to our perception of lighto BRIGHTNESS- determind by the amplitude of the wave—how high or how low the wave actually is. The high the wave, the brighter the light will be. o COLOR: is determined by the length of the wave. Long wavelengths are found at the red end of the wavelength, the portion that is humanly visibleo SATURATION: refers to the purity of the color people see, mixing in black or gray would lessen the saturation - What are the structures of the eye?Retina- final stop for light in the eye. Three layers: ganglion, bipolar, photoreceptors cellsthat respond to various light waves. Photoreceptors- Rods- adapted for vision in dim light Cones- adapted for color vision, daytime vision, and detailed vision, require a lot of light. Fovea- vast majority of cones are in here. Very precise, very clear vision- What are some visual disorders?o Lens deficitsPresbyopia; develops as we age. Decreased flexibility of the lens, and therefore, inability to focus on nearby objects. Cataract: the lens becomes cloudy.o Eye shape deficitsMyopia: can focus well on nearby objects but difficulty with distant objects. Eyeballs are elongated. Hyperopia: can focus well on distant objects but not so well on close objects. Eyeballs are flattened. o Glaucoma- increased pressure in the eyeball which can lead to optic nerve damage and the loss of peripheral vision (tunnel vision) - What is the blind spot in the eye? - How does the information from our eyes become images we understand and process?- What are the theories of color vision?o Trichromatic theory: theory of color vision that proposes three types of cones: yellow, red, blueAfterimages: when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed. o Opponent process theory: we perceive color not in terms of independent colors but in terms of a system of paired opposites.Red vs. GreenYellow vs. blueWhite vs. black- What is color blindness, and what are the different types? Monochrome colorblindness: a person’s eyes either have no cones or have cones that arenot working. Red-green colorblindness: either the red or green cones are not working: protonopia- red cones Deuteranopia: green cones, Tritanopia: lack of functioning blue conesSex-linked inheritanceEars:- What are sound waves and what are the properties of sound waves? Vibrations of molecules in the air or another mediumo Amplitude- interpreted as volume (how soft or loud a sound is)o Wavelength- interpreted as frequency of pitch( high medium low)o Purity/Timbre- a richness in the tone of the sound- How do we measure sound waves?o Hertz- cycles of waves per second, a measurement of frequencyHumans have limited range between ; 20 Hz – 20,000 HzGreatest sensitivy – 2000-4000 Hzo Decibels- a unit of measure for loudness- What are the various different structures in the ear?o Outer Ear- pinna, auditory canalo Middle Ear- stapeso Inner Ear- cochlea, basilar membrane, organ of cortiCochlea; - What are the different theories of pitch? Pitch corresponds to the frequency of the sound waves; the higher the frequency the higher the pitch.o Place theory- the stimulation of hair cells in different locations in the organ of cortio Frequency theory- related to the speed of vibrations in the basilar membraneo The basilar membrane vibrates unevelnly when the frequency is above 1000 Hz—place theoryo Neurons associated with the hair cells fire as fast as the basilar membrane vibratesup to 1000 Hz- What are the two ways in which a person can be hearing impaired, and how can we help people who are hearing impaired? Conduction hearing impairment can result from damaged eardrum, damaged stapes. Nerve hearing impairment can result from: damage in the inner ear, damage in the auditory pathways. Taste:- What is gustation? Taste buds. Taste receptor cells in mouth.- What are taste buds? Where are they located? What are their properties and structures?o Papillae- tastes buds like the walls of these, come in two different sizes. Smaller and more numerous ones are touch sensitive and rough. They help chew and move food. Larger one contains the taste buds. - What are the basic tastes humans can experience? Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, “brothy” or umamiSmell:- What is olfaction? Sense of smell. There are at least 1,000 olfactory receptors. - What are olfactory bulbs?Somesthetic:- What are the somesthetic senses? The body senses consisting of the skin senses, the kinesthetic sense and the vestibular sense. o Cutaneous senses- skin senses: pressure, warmth, cold, pain, vibration, movement, and stretch. Some places receptors are densely packed (fingertips and lips) Sensory receptors Phantom limbso Kinesthetic sense- sense of the location of body parts in relation to the ground andeach other. o Vestibular sense- the direction of tilt and amount of acceleration of the head and the position of the head with respect to

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LSU PSYC 1001 - Ch. 3 Lecture Outline: Sensation and Perception

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