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Chapter 13 Study Guide- Biological, Cognitive, Humanistic, Client-centered, behavior, integrative, group, family, coupled, and psychodynamic therapyo Biological- treatments that reduce or eliminate the symptoms of psychological disorders by altering aspects ofbody functioningo Cognitive- a therapy that combines cognitive therapy and behavior therapy with the goal of developing the client’s self-efficacyo Humanistic-treatments, unique in their emphasis on people’s self-healing capacities, that encourage clients to understand themselves and grow personallyo Client-centered- Also called Rogerian therapy or nondirective therapy, a form of humanistic therapy, developed by Rogers, in which the therapist provides a warm, supportive atmosphere to improve the client’s self-concept and to encourage the client to gain insight into problemso Behavior- treatments, based on the behavioral and social cognitive theories, that use principles of learning to reduceor eliminate maladaptive behavioro Integrative- use of a combination of techniques from different therapies based on the therapist’s judgment of which particular methods will provide the greatest benefit for the cliento Group- a sociocultural approach to the treatment of psychological disorders that brings together individuals who share a particular psychological disorder in sessions that are typically led by a mental health professionalo Family- group therapy with family memberso Coupled- group therapy involving married or unmarried couples who major problem lies within their relationshipo Psychodynamic- treatments that stress the importance of the unconscious mind, extensive interpretation by the therapist, and the role of early childhood experiences in the development of an individual’s problems- Tranquilizers-also known as antianxiety drugs; reduce anxiety by making individuals calmer and less excitable- Benzodiazepines-the antianxiety drugs that generally offer the greatest relief got anxiety symptoms, though potentially addictive- Antidepressants-drugs that help to regulate mood. Three main classeso Tricyclic- believed to work by increasing the level of certain neurotransmitters, especially serotonin and norepinephrine. Example: Elavilo Monoamine oxidase-thought to work by blocking the enzyme monoamine oxidase, which breaks down the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain. Example: Nardilo Serotonin reuptake inhibitors-(SSRIs) target serotonin and work mainly by interfering with the reabsorption of serotonin in the brain. Example: Prozac- Paxil- (paroxetine) a widely prescribed SSRI; effective in reducing the symptoms of depression with fewer side effects than other antidepressants- Prozac- (fluoxetine)- a widely prescribed SSRI; effective in reducing the symptoms of depression with fewer side effects than other antidepressants- - the lightest of the solid elements in the periodic table of elements, widely used to treat bipolar disorder. - Antipsychotic drugs- powerful drugs that diminish agitated behavior, reduce tension, decrease hallucinations, improve socialbehavior, and produce better sleep patterns in individuals with a severe psychological disorder, especially schizophrenia- Neuroleptic drugs-the most extensively used class of antipsychotic drugs. When taken in sufficient doses, neuroleptics reduce schizophrenia symptoms. They are able to block dopamine’s action in the brain- ECT- electroconvulsive therapy; also called shock therapy, a treatment, sometimes used for depression, that sets off a seizurein the brain- Psychosurgery- a biological therapy, with irreversible effects, that involves removal or destruction of brain tissue to improve the individual’s adjustment- Psychoanalysis- Freud’s therapeutic technique for analyzing anindividual’s unconscious thoughts- Catharsis-the release of emotional tension a person experienceswhen reliving an emotionally charged and conflicting experience- Latent vs. Manifest contento Latent- the unconscious, hidden aspects of a dream that are symbolized by the manifest contento Manifest- conscious, remembered aspects of a dream- Transference- a client’s relating to the psychoanalyst in ways that reproduce or relive important relationships in the client’s life- Resistance- unconscious defense strategies on the part of a client that prevent the psychoanalyst from understanding the client’s problems- Reflective speech-a technique in which the therapist mirrors the client’s own feelings back to the client- Behavior modification- also known as applied behavior analysis; the use of operant conditioning principles to change human behavior- Systematic desensitization- a behavior therapy that treats anxiety by teaching the client to associate deep relaxation with increasingly intense anxiety-producing situations- Aversive conditioning-repeated pairings of an undesirable behavior with aversive stimuli to decrease the behavior’s positive associations. Through this people can learn to avoid such behaviors as smoking, overeating and drinking alcohol- Applied behavior analysis- involves establishing positive reinforcement connections between behaviors and rewards so that individuals engage in appropriate behavior and extinguish inappropriate behavior- Cognitive restructuring- a general concept for changing a pattern of thought that is presumed to be causing maladaptive behavior or emotion. Central to cognitive therapists- Rational-emotive behavior theory- a therapy based on Ellis’s assertion that individuals develop a psychological disorder because of irrational and self-defeating beliefs and whose goal is to get clients to eliminate these beliefs by rationally examining them- Beck’s cognitive theory- in the initial stage of Beck’s therapy, individuals learn to make connections between their patterns of thinking and their emotional responses. . He believed that by changing cognitions, people can change how they feel. The first goal of therapy is to bring automatic thoughts into awareness so that they can be changed. The therapist helps clients identify their own automatic thoughts and to keep records of their thought content and emotional reactions- Self-efficacy-Albert Bandura’s concept that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes. Key to successful therapy- Self-help groups- voluntary organizations of individuals who get together on a regular basis to discuss topics of common interest. The groups are conducted by a

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UT BIOL 1120 - Chapter 13 Study Guide

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