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10 08 2013 EXAM 3 INFORMATION Peripheral Nervous System Somatic Division o Motor portion controls striated muscles o Sensory portion sends information to CNS Vision is not included in this Autonomic division o Motor only Smooth muscle cardiac muscle and glands o Sympathetic and Parasympathetic divisions Somatic Nervous System Spinal Nerves 31 pairs o Afferents and efferent 8 cervical 12 Thoracic 5 Lumbar 5 Sacral 1 Coccygeal o As you get closer to the spinal cord spinal roots are longer o Has sensory and motor components Caudal Equine horse tail place where you have spinal roots and is all bathed in CSF Spinal tap put into the caudal equine because you have less spinal tissue and more CSF Basic anatomy of the spinal nerve o Coming off dorsal and ventral surfaces are the spinal roots o All sensory information comes in through the dorsal spinal Enlargement is a ganglion the dorsal root ganglion Type of neuron located here Unipolar All neurons located here and unipolar o All motor information comes in through the ventral spinal root root Join with the spinal root go out into the body Cell bodies located in central grey matter Skeletal muscles Going to smooth muscle cardiac muscle or glands Cranial Nerves 12 pair o Three types Motor only sensory only mixed function o Only a subset are mixed o 4 are sensory and motor mixed o 3 are just sensory o 5 are just motor o On old Olympus towering tops a fin and German viewed some hops device to learn what the cranial nerves are SSMMBMBSBBMM sequence in which you can know what type of neuron is which Some say Mary makes babies my brother says bad boys make Mary o Cranial nerves CN 1 Olfactory CN 2 Vision CN 3 4 6 Share function of moving eyes changing the diameter of the pupil and changing thickness of the CN 5 The muscles of chewing sensory ability on the lens front of the face CN 7 Controlling facial muscles facial expressions goes to the salivary glands Taste receptors in the tongue Tear glands CN 8 2 functions auditory and vestibular Auditory nerve vestibular cochlear nerve CN 9 Taste also with salivation Ability to swallow Monitors pressure sensor in the major blood vessel leaving the heart important in regulating blood pressure and heart rate CN 10 Vagus Taste and swallowing and more importantly sensory and motor intervention to the organs of the chest thorax and abdomen CN 11 Lift our shoulders and turn our head CN 12 Control of the tongue muscles in the neck Autonomic Nervous system Sympathetic and Parasympathetic anatomy is almost the same Collection of cell bodies in the PNS is called a ganglion In both divisions there are two neurons going out to the target and connect with a ganglion Preganglionic and Post ganglionic fibers Sympathetic division o Causes us to use up energy o Energy expenditure catabolic o Insulin allows for sugar to enter cells The sympathetic division will use the glucose that is available will use energy Heart rate will go up so will body temp Absorption of food will go down Pupil would dilate so more light could come in o Fight or flight response o Preganglionic originates in thoracic and lumbar cord o Spinal sympathetic ganglion right along side vertebral column o Post ganglionic fibers goes out to target organ o Look at figure 22 o In all of this division the neuron released in the ganglion is acetylcholine Ach very similar to adrenaline NT released in Norepinephrine o Ach is like many other NT s combined to more than one kind of receptor Subtype that exists in this ganglion Nicotinic o Short preganglionic long postganglionic fibers o Exceptions to the rule 1 There are some that leave the cord and go close to the target organ and synapse there These are referred to as pre vertebral ganglia Same Nt s and everything just different synapse location o 2 Adrenal gland is the only gland that receives preganglionic intervention Ach is accepted here Releases adrenaline and norepinephrine and releases in the blood stream Acts as large ganglionic sympathetic neuron Releases large amount of substance into the blood stream o 3 Those going to the tear glands release Ach instead of norepinephrine Postganglionic fibers o Sympathetic arousal is not going to be very specific Many things happen at the same time o So diffuse because adrenaline is released from adrenal gland Has same effect as postganglionic neuron Parasympathetic division o Energy conservation anabolic o Breaks down food passage of material through GI tract o Facilitates storage of energy o Preganglionic originates in cranial nerve nuclei and sacral cord o Anatomy is simple o Dominate cranial nerve here is 10th nerve VAGUS Sends out 75 of sympathetic activation to our bodies o Has to go a long distance out to the peripheral and close to target organ makes synaptic contact and then goes the rest of the way to target organ o NT released here Ach and subtype is Nicotinic o When gets to its target releases Ach but the subtype is muscarinic o Para sympathetic activation can be highly localized and very discrete because ganglion aren t interconnected unlike sympathetic division Autonomic nervous system is using Ach with the signal exception of postganglionic that are noradrenergic 10 08 2013 Chapter 4 Psychopharmacology Effects of the drugs we take on our NS and behavior Drugs must enter the brain Psychopharmacology Drugs affect nervous system to alter behavior A drug has a particular definition not just anything that effects the brain is a drug Assumptions about drugs o 1 Are exogenous chemicals not produced in the body To be considered a drug must be something we cannot produce o 2 Alter neuron activity Have to change neuron functions When you change neurons either inhibit or facilitate o 3 Have effects at low doses o 4 Suggest endogenous ligands if we take heroin and it produces a effect at low dose the reason it is producing effect is that it is manufacturing in the body Pharmacokinetics Interested in how it gets into NS bloodstream Drug must reach target sites How effective it is at distribution Pharmacokinetics study of absorption distribution and elimination How is it metabolized Routes o Oral problem has to survive the digestive process Once absorbed into blood stream has to be able to pass the blood brain barrier Preferred o Intravenous IV much smaller dose all enters the blood stream at once If crosses barrier provides rapid effect on brain o Intraperitoneal IP slowly absorbed Membrane surrounds all of the abdominal organs Doesn t immediately enter blood

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