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History 104 NotesLecture 1:1. What does it meant to adopt an agricultural way of life? - Feeding themselves from nature, reliance on domestic resources, work land intensively, animal husbandry, sedentary(stay in one place)2. When, where, how & why did this occur? When? Where? What?8000 BCE Jordan Valley, ZagrosMtnsBarley, einkorn &emmer wheat7000 BCE Rest of SW Asia (Same)5000 BCE China (Yellow River) Millet5000 BCE China (Yangtze River) Rice4000 BCE Mesoamerica Teosinte/ maize3. What were the consequences? - Increased population & density, social inequality, new relationships to land (ownership), new tools, investment in infrastructure, shift from communal tohousehold economic organizationLecture 2:1. What is “civilization”? - Human society in which culture, science, industry & government have been reached. Latin “Civis” means city. 2. What is the link between agriculture and civilization? - 5000 years of higher yields & more surplus, increased population & density, demands & allowed investment infrastructure LED TO cities. New & more complex forms of social organization & resource management.3. Where and when did the first civilizations emerge, and with what characteristics? EGYPT (2575-2134 BCE) MESOPTAMIA (2500 BCE)Predictable flooding Unpredictable floodingNo irrigation necessary IrrigationPopulation spread along river& delta Independent city statesProgressively united region under aking (pharaoh)Clustering of cities (allied ordominated)Tombs TemplesLecture 3:1. Why do empires dominate the narrative of history? - Empire: agglomeration of separate political entities under one rule. Formed by: marriage alliance, designation as heir, conquest, subordination (semi-independent rulers pay tribute)- Empires are the result of surplus in society that leads to excess wealth that can allow them to pay for military expenses and build monuments.2. What problems do they face? What legacies do they leave? - #1 problem=administration. Coalesce as a unified state or revert to separate, independent units.- Legacies:o Akkadian Empire conquered and united city-states of Akkad & Sumer Lead by Sargon (first empire in SW Asia)o Babylonian Empire made Babylon a political, cultural and religious center of Mesopotamia, Sacked by Hitties, Code of HammurabiLead by Hammurabio Assyrian Empire “city & god”, annual military expeditions & deportation of peopleLead by Aramaico Neo-Babylonian Empire (Chaldeans) conquered by Cyrus the Great Lead by Nebuchadnezzar IIo Persian Empire “Achaemenid dynasty” Lead by Cyrus the Great & Darius I. Darius III conquered by Alexander the Great (331 BCE)3. How did successive empires in SW Asia carry on and change Sumerian traditions? - Kings as god’s chosen, kings as military leaders, monuments as royal propaganda, use of writing, cuneiform, urban, economy based on agriculture & trade, polytheistic (except Persians)Lecture 4:1. How does China’s earliest history compare to SW Asia? - King (religious, military leader, legal administrator)- Monumental architecture/ population density= palaces- Ancestor worship (ritual offerings & divination)- Land aristocracy Lecture 5:1. How, where & why did writing first develop? - Where: o Mesoamerica o Mesopotamia o Egypto China - How: o Cuneiformo Mensuration & Pictogramso Picture of an object =symbol for spoken wordo Coherent writing systemo Adaptation to new circumstances, reform & standardizationo Different forms for different media (letter forms, direction)- Why:o Logographic (sign=word) Syllabic (sign=syllable)  Alphabetic (sign=sound)o Protosinatic= 1st alphabetic writingo Fewer symbols to memorize2. What impact does writing have on society? - As a technology, writing makes communication across distances, accuracy, detail and permanence possible- Writing= new elites, methods of social control, criteria for documentation & new subjectivities3. How do written records shape our knowledge of the past? - Record keeping (detail & permanence)- Memorializing (remembering)- Moralizing (narrative & meaning)Lecture 6:1. What social conditions gave rise to Confucian thought? - Ethics emerge in prosperous societies at times of crisis or confusing changes in the social order- Spenta Mainyu=Holy Spirit & Angra Mainyu=Hostile Spirit- Everyone’s choices matter- Everyone judged equally2. Was there a parallel development in SW Asia? - Good government, place in the social order & individual behavior3. What are the central tenets of their teaching? - FOUR KEY VIRTUES:o Benevolence (Ren)o Reciprocity (Shu)o Filial Piety (Xiao)o Ritual (li)- Aim: to cultivate a virtuous character- Family=microcosm for society- Emulate virtuous ancestors & men of the past- NOT a religion, but a comprehensive ethical system4. What is the role of politics in diffusing their technology? - Qin Dynasty:o 1st emperor preferred Legalismo Persecuted Confucian scholars & destroyed textso Legalism linked with indiscriminate harshness- Han Dynasty:o Promote Confucianism to establish ordero Emphasized proper character, responsibility, loyalty among subjectso Strengthened Emperor’s place at the center of social orderLecture 7:1. What social conditions gave rise to Buddha’s teaching? - Philosophical & speculativeo Forces ritual meant to symbolizeo Demythologize gods- Liberation through knowledge- Increased prosperity (signs of urbanization & commercialization)- New political order- Old vs. New2. What did Buddha teach? - FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS:o Existence of sufferingo Arising of sufferingo Cessation of Sufferingo Path leading to the ending of suffering Morality Meditation Wisdom3. What religious teachings preceded the Buddha’s? - Upanishads= new interpretations of older Vedic texts & practices-4. What others were contemporary? - Zoroasterism, Jainism, ConfucianismLecture 8:1. What social conditions gave rise to ancient Greek humanism? - Trade networks and colonies- City-states- Not empires: no central authority- Mercantile & cultural outposts- Democracy vs. Tyranny2. What core teachings of humanist philosophy? - Humanism= a doctrine, attitude or way of life centered on human interests orvalues.- A philosophy that usually rejects supernaturalism and stresses an individual’s dignity and worth and capacity for self-realization through reason.3. What effect did Alexander’s conquest & Greek culture

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