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Ecology and Wildlife and Conservation Notes 2- Biodiversity - the diversity of genes, species, and ecosystems in region- Levels: 1. Genetic2. Population species3. Community ecosystems- Ex. at the population- animal level- Composition- example= the identity and relative abundances of species in natural community.- Structural- example, sex ratio, age distribution- Functional- example, population growth and fluctuation trends of special interest species1. Genetic Diversity:- Genetic Diversity- the number of different kinds of genes in a population or species.- Mutations: 1. Changes is the genetic structure of an organism2. Helpful or harmful- Immigration- introduces new genetic material to the population- Sexual Reproduction- generates new genetic combinations that may be more successful in the long run.- Population Size:1. Small vs. Large2. Inherently less diversity2. Population- Species level Diversity- The measure of different species present in an area- Some areas are normally high in species diversity, while others are normally low.- Highest level of specie diversity is found in the tropics- Factors influencing species diversity in a region: 1. The history of the regiona. Poles vs. Tropics2. Immigration:a. May introduce species to an area where they were not present previouslyb. Invasive species?3. Size of the Area:a. The larger the area considered, the higher the species diversity will be.4. Human Activity:a. We have very low species diversity in places we have urbanized. (Ex. Gated communities)3. Community-Ecosystem- The number of kinds of ecosystems present in an area- The larger the area studied, the more ecosystems that will be presentWhy is Biodiversity Important?- Higher biodiversity= higher ecosystem services- Maintain food webs better- Four Broad Categories: 1. Provisioning2. Regulating3. Supporting4. Cultural1. Provisioning Services: - Agriculture= greater than 670$ billion- Forestry= greater than 200$ billion- Fisheries= greater than 80$ billion2. Regulating Services: - Controlling climate- Carbon sequestration- Water purification- Ex. Pollination3. Supporting Services - Nutrient cycling- Seed dispersal4. Cultural Services - Recreation- Spiritual- CulturalEthical Value:- Organisms have an intrinsic value to exist.- There is great value in just knowing that there are wild areas out thereThreats to Wildlife- Biodiversity is lost when: o Populations are greatly reduced in sizeo A species becomes extinct (the death of a species. No individuals remain)o An ecosystem is greatly modified or destroyedo Accelerated by Human impacto Developing countriesAreas of Highest Loss Bio-Diversity:- The Amazon Basin and Southeast Asia (deforestation and expansion of crops)- Bangladesh, Indus Valley, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Africa- Oceanic (Over fishing and pollution)- 38% of mammals threated with extinction- 80% of primates in Asia are threatened due to habitat loss and hunting (and marine mammals)- Marine mammals are threatened by fishing nets, vessel strikes, sonar testing, and pollution- 100 marine mammals are killed each day. (Ex. Yangtze River Dolphin)o Endemic (found only in) the Yangtze Rivero 6,000 animals in the 1950’so Affected by industrialization, overfishing and damming for hydro…- Traditional Medicineo Rhino horn is used to “cool” the bloodo Tiger penis is used to reat impotenceo Bear bile is used to reduce..- Birds- 1,226 species of bird face extinction- Twenty of North Americas most common birds have declined by over 50%- Ex. Spix Macawo Native to Brazil and dependent on Caraibiera tree for nestingo Plagued by hunting and deforestationo Last three individuals caught for pet use and trade- Amphibianso 1/3 of amphibian species are threated (the most)o 200 species have gone extinct in the last 20 yearso The chytrid fungus May kill 80% or more of the native amphibians  Ex. Golden Toad- found in the cloud forest of Costa Rica- The Oceano 70% of coral reefs are threatened or destroyedo 620 marine organisms are currently threatened with extinctiono 40 species of fish have gone extincto Water pollution importanto Overfishing, Ex. Shark Finningo ~100 million sharks are killed each year- Plantso Critical linko One in eight species of plant are threatened with extinctiono Habitat degrationo Invasive- We have a closer count of the stars that we do the number of species in the planet- 1.4-1.8 million species have been identified- 2 million is the lowest estimate- 100 million is the highest- At estimated rate we lose 2,000 – 100,000 species per year- One species is lost every 20 minutes- Half of all species might go extinct in our lifetimeMISSED CLASS ON TUESDAY MARCH 18TH- During the last glacial periodo Sea level went down, exposing the Bering land bridge, allowing humans..- Early European explorerso Brought disease that decimated Native America populations, leaving behind early successional habitat…- Purpose of the Lacey Act?o To federally eliminate inter-state transfer of illegal wildlife parts- During the era of overexploitation which of the following species did NOT go extinct?o BisonOverexploitation- Exploitation- living off the land or seas- “There’s enough on this planet for everyone’s needs, but not for everyone’s greed” – Gandhi - A middle class American consumes roughly 3.3 time the substance level of food and about 250 times the subsistence level of clean water- Earth could only support about 2 billion middle-class Americans- Overexploitation- living off the land or seas in a manner that cannot be sustained. (Key threat for marine systems, second only to habitat loss and destruction for Birds, Mammals, and Plants)Temperate Terrestrial Systems- Hunting in the United States- “Mostly” well controlled management- Necessary in modified environmentso Altered vegetationo Limited diseaseo Removed predator specieso Ex. Prerrie Dog shoots, rattle snake round-outs (Overexploiting both of these)- Hunting/wildlife trade- Tropics used to have 40% of the people in the world, now they have 60% (tropics are the most bio diverse place)- Timber extractionThe Bushmeat Trade- No longer sustainable- Local consumption regional markets- Definition of Tropical Forests- faster than trees are being cut down in southeast Asia we are killing the animals that are suppose to be in that forest- Southeast Asia has 522 people per square km- Central –West Africa 99 people per square km- Latin America- 46 people per square km- Unintended

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UD ENWC 201 - Ecology and Wildlife and Conservation

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