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Media, Power and CulturePay attention to: Chapter Highlights, Talking Points, Key TermsKey Content Blocks- Mediated communications- Analog building blocks- print- Electronic media- tv, film- Digital media- internet, facebook, youtube- Journalism in the digital age- The business of persuasion- ads and PR- Ethics and lawGeorge Gershwin- Summertime songThe Great Train Robbery (1903) Edwin Porter – filmRupert Murdoch- bought the times, expanded to many other corporationsAriana Huffington- started the news website The Huffington Post, sold to AOLTabby Gevinson- fashion blogger, started blogging at age 11, rose to fame at age 13Oprah Winfrey- talk show, book club influenceHenry Boldget- analyzed/recommended stocks, disgraced and banned for lying in his stock analyses, rebuilt his name and is now CEO of the business insider (site)Mamie Smith- Crazy Blues songIntolerance (1916) D.W. Griffith- filmBirth of Nations (1915)- filmMedia literacy- the ability to understand (media and its effect on you and society) and make productive use of the mediaMedia Literacy “Six Key Points”1. All media are constructions.2. Each person interprets messages differently.3. Most media have commercial interests.4. The media contain ideological and value messages. Biases5. Each medium has its own language, style, techniques, codes, conventions, andaesthetics. Print, audio, video, etc. portray messages differently.6. The media have social and political implications.Media criticism- the analysis used to assess the effects of media on individuals, societies, and on culturesTwo different approaches to the study of media: criticism and career preparationCommunication- human beings sharing messagesFeedback- messages that return from the receiver of a message to the source (restricted usually in mass communication, sales of advertised product can be feedback)Noise- anything that interferes with communicationMediated communication- any type of sharing of messages conveyed thru an interposed device (or medium) rather than face-to-faceMedia- print media (books, magazines, newspapers); broadcast media (tv and radio); digital media (internet, cell phones); and the entertainment media (all of these plus movies, recordings, and video games)Mass communication- mediated messages that are transmitted to large, usually widespread audiencesGatekeepers- those who determine which messages will be delivered to media consumersMediated interpersonal communication- sharing of personal messages thru some form of device (webcam, phone, email)Convergence- the merging of technologies, industries, and content; technologies: merging of computer, phone, and mass media technologies; industries: corporate mergers that allow companies to combine their media technologies (TV company with internet and phone divisions); content: bringing together mediated interpersonal messages with the messages of traditional mass communication (the internet, and facebook)America dominates the world media-Sends out far more mass media products than it imports-English is the most spoken second language, easier to export U.S. media products-Freedom of expression: allows American media practitioners to create a wide rangeof media products without govt. interference-Audience diversity: U.S. media producers must make products for a diverse audience that incorporates a wide range of backgrounds and tastes (melting pot)-Big business’s ability to produce big-budget popular entertainmentReasons for corporate media growth1. Economies of scale- the savings that come with mass production (when moreunits are produced, each unit costs less)2. Synergy- any combo of forces that results in a whole that is more than the sum of its parts (company mergers, cross merchandising- selling the product in one form promotes sales of the product in some other form)3. Global competition- different companies compete with each other all over the worldPatterns of ownership- Group ownership- one company owns the same type of medium in more thanone market area (tv stations and newspapers owned in groups)- Conglomerates- large companies involved in many different types of businesses. Form through the following:o Vertical integration- a business model in which a company owns different parts of the same industry, thus controlling both production and distribution facilities (NBC bought Universal Studios tv network)o Horizontal integration- when a company buys many different types of businesses (tv company buys a publishing company to produce books about its tv shows)o Combined integration- vertical and horizontal combined (Disney owns movie studios as well as movie theme parks, and recording studios that sell movie sound tracks)Antitrust laws- prohibit monopolistic practices in restraint of tradeMedia and the governmentGovernment ownership- communist countries tend to have governments that own and operate the media…the idea behind this is that the media exist to serve the govt.Private ownership, government control- allows media to be privately owned, but still requires media organizations to be controlled by the governmentLibertarian- allows media to be privately owned and free of government control, exists only in theoryMixed model- varying degrees of government control and ownershipAmerican media and government related in 3 important ways:1. Media businesses are subject to government regulation. Regulation in the U.S.has always been minimal because of fears of censorship- any action that prohibits an act of expression from being made public2. The media act as a fourth estate, or unofficial 4th branch of govt. designed to observe and report on the other branches (the media keeps citizens informedabout actions and decisions of their elected representatives). In doing so, the media were expected to have an adversarial relationship with the government, one that the press followed different objectives from the objectives of those in power.3. The media are the principal channels in which political campaigns take place.Media and the audience and the impact of the audience in shaping media content-The audience ultimately decides what the final meaning of a messageis, even if that determination is not what the producers intended-Advertisers depend on audience’s opinions of products and buying behavior-The audience plays a major role in the acceptance/rejection of new media technologyArtist/song of the day: Paul Robeson/Woody Guthrie- Ballad of John HenryCharlie Chaplin: Modern Times-

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KSU JMC 20001 - Media, Power and Culture

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