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Geology 110 Midterm ReviewSpring 2014Week One:How do you create a well-informed opinion?- Perspective: View, outlook; Agenda- Extrapolation: Conclusion out-of-bounds of observation- Assumption: an idea without evidence; blatant opinion - Correlation: a parallel, possibly coincidental- Evidence: data, verifiable facts (FaVes!)What to look for when researching and reading articles- Rhetoric: persuasive words, often relying on emotion- Anecdote: one specific incident, event, or story- Testimony: declaration by a respected person- Speculation: conclusion reached with incomplete infoWeek Two:Observation Bias- Failure to report observations fully and accurately- Tendency to favor information that supports one side only- Tendency to have an observed group behave unnaturally swaying the observation results one way or anotherSolutions to observation bias:- Replication: multiple observers, dates, times; multiple locations- Controls: Groups “along for the ride”, but not are not experimented on - “Blind” data collection: recorder does not know that who is being experimented onReadings:EASTER ISLAND- Arrived around 900 AD, but scientist speculate that it could be earliero Proven by carbon dating done on charcoal found at dwelling siteso There were also bones of birds that were extinct found in the same charcoal pits - The main animals that were used by the people of Easter Island wereo Birdso Dolphinso Rats (they brought them to the island)- Vegetationo Trees (specifically palm trees- Used rocks and stones to retain water- Used boats to hunt out at sea- POWER STRUCTUREo Chiefso Peasantso There were multiple clanso Religious Power There were multiple chiefdoms found throughout the island, suggesting there were multiple clans with multiple powers- What happened when deforestation became a problem on the island?o They could no longer build boats  They lost a food source because they could no longer hunt the animalsof the ocean. They were forced to completely change their lifestyle There was some evidence of cannibalismo There was no way to transport statues, causing there to be no more monuments made - What contributed to the fall of Easter Island?o Civil waro Cannibalism o Lots of isolationo The importance of statues became a problem because it took away so many of the resources needed to surviveNorse Greenland- Arrived around 1000 ADo Carbon dating of lake sediments that had a charcoal layero Also found tools and other artifacts in the layer of charcoal - The main animals that were used:o Whales (for the baleen) The Baleen was used to hold together boats once the iron was used upo Skins o Livestock- Vegetationo Lumber Once deforestation hit, they had to use washed up wood or imported woodo Turf When there was no more wood, they used turf and stone to build theirhouses Only the richest and churches had stone built houses- Metals o Iron Used to make pegs and tools - POWER STRUCTUREo The church had the majority of the power- What was the response to deforestation?o They had wood imported to Norse Greenlando Used wood that washed up onto their lando Used turf for their houses when wood became scarce- What ultimately contributed to the fall of Norse Greenland?o Over farmingo Lack of recourses o They did not adapt the was that was needed for them to survivePhotosynthesis- Pieces of Photosynthesiso The suno Chlorophyll-absorbs sunlight and drives the process of photosynthesis o Photosystemo Watero Pheophytin-a molecule that accepts excited electrons from chlorophyll//photosystem and passes them to the electron transport chaino Electron Transporterso NADP- oxidized, electron carrier that is reduced during light dependent reactions, biosynthetic reactionso RuBisCo-the enzyme, the addition of the CO2 molecule o Carbon Dioxideo Sugar Chains and Starch Trains- PROCESSSummary of Chapter One of Energy and The Industrial Revolution - IDEAS OF SMITH, RICARDO, and MALTHUSo SMITH The land set the limits of the economy If there was no more land to produce on, there would be no more expansion The land set the bounds on what could possibly be produced and grown  A rise in production meant a rise in wages, which in turn meant a higher fertility rate. If wages were lower, so was the fertility rateo RICARDO When land that is poor or has already been used is used again, then the output will be less than it was before with fresh land or good land Once smaller amounts of crops are being yielded, the affect will be permanento MALTHUS Similar to Smith, believed that wages had affect on the fertility rate of an area. Higher wage//production meant higher fertility rate Believed that there always needed to be a “positive check”- Positive Check: when population growth comes to a halt because of an outside source- What are the ideas of heat energy and “prime movers”o All types of material production involve the expenditure of energyo Transportation of goods can use up as much energy as was needed to produce them in the first placeo MECHANICAL POWER came from human or animal muscle A horse or oxen had the power of 6 men, so there was a direct need of animal power to keep up with the demand from the human raceo THERMAL ENERGY came from the burning of wood or charcoal  Burning wood provided the bulk amount of heat energy that was needed and consumed- Social Constraints on Reproductiono In an organic economy population growth cannot continue indefinitely, thereare multiple constraints that keep it from doing so  There is a point when population growth comes to a halt and birth and death rates are in balance- ORGANIC ECONOMY An economy where food and resources are produced with energy from the land. It involves agriculture and man//animal power to createWEEK THREE:Decision Making: Individual vs Groups- Individual Decisionso Based on personal experienceo Can be influenced by the opinions of otherso Research is done before decision is made- Group Decisionso Personality matters Those who come across as confident will have their opinions noticed more Those who are more shy tend to not have their opinions heardo Ideally the decision would benefit the entire groupo Trust is a factoro More comfortable in self chosen groupsSuccess of New Guinea, Tikopia, and Japan- New Guinea and Tikopiao Smallo Individual awareness of the larger picture  They paid attention to the land and its limitso Learned from the mistakes of their past If way of

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UO GEOL 110 - Midterm Review

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