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ROME Origins of Christian Imagery WHEN 3rd 4th century CE WHERE Syria Mesopotamia and Arabian border of Roman Empire Best example of Christian art Mix of cultures because of various close borders Location of Dora Europos o Destroyed in Sassanian invasion in 256 CE abandoned o Rediscovered in 1885 by Yale University o Heavily fortified walls buried by wall debris Before Constantine FIRST TO 1 Depict Christ in Good Shepherd MOST KNOWN FOR 1 Underground Mithraeum 2 Sacrifice and Salvation 3 Fresco style 4 Narrative in one image 5 Merge of Classic style 6 Main image shown twice 7 Hierarchy of scale 8 Story of Jonah and the Whale 9 Personification SIMMILAR TO style Naturalism LOCATIONS TO KNOW AND WHY 1 Pompeii Dora Europos also preserved by a moment in time Fresco 1 Dora Europos Palace Citadel Temple of Bel Underground Mithraeum Temple of Adonis Jewish synagogue Church 2 Rome Mithras born from the Rock Good Shepherd sculpture Appia catacombs Catacomb of St Peter Marcellinus Italy Mithraeum cape of stars 3 TERMS 1 Architecture Insula Private homes used for worship Loculi Walls of passageways used as burial slots and covered with marble Arcosolia Archway graves Cubicula Expensive elaborate family burial rooms 2 Art Orant position Prayer stance with hands up and bent out toward the side Late Empire WHEN 193 337 CE 1 200 300 CE End of Severan dynasty and begin soldier emperors 2 284 305 CE Diocletian rule under tetrarchy 3 305 CE Diocletian dies Civil war between successors 4 306 337 CE Constantine rules Begins to spread Christianity WHERE ROME Only significant because it s a reflection of Roman Empire falling Deals with the most territory causes wars Son of Constantius Constantine fights Maximian Constantine hears God and sees Chi Rho symbol before winning the battle and paints them on their shields and becomes Christian Constantine became symbol of Christian church No longer just lower class or small churches FIRST TO 1 Establish tetrarchy in 293 CE Constantius Caesar Maximian Augustus Galerius Caesar Diocletian Augustus Have Christianity in art and architecture Use Roman Imperial Design MOST KNOWN FOR Less individualism and less naturalism 1 2 Political propaganda 3 Art and architecture representing the political change in the time period 4 Showing legitimate connection to other rulers 5 Chi Rho symbol 6 Circulating gold coins or medallions to spread Christianity and Constantine 7 Use of gold marble SIMMILAR TO 1 Mesopotamia Both use hierarchy of scale friezes 2 Late Classic Both use mosaics LOCATIONS TO KNOW AND WHY 1 Venice Church of St Mark s 2 Tibur River Milvian Bridge Battle between Maximian and Constantine 3 Rome Basilica of Maxentius Constantine Arch of Constantine Gold coins medallions St Peter s Basilica Church of Santa Sabina PEOPLE TO KNOW AND WHY 1 Constantine First Christian Emperor 2 Diocletian Established tetrarchy ruling reestablished succession and first ruler to retire 3 Michelangelo Bramante Helped to build St Peter s Basilica TERMS 1 Empire Augustus Main ruler Caesar Junior ruler who was successor to Augustus and appointed new Caesar Roman Imperial Design No individualism or naturalism includes Christianity and Constantine includes uniform church design 2 Architecture Apse Breaks back wall to arc shape to display statues of Constantine Transept Turns church into a cross shape allows space for clergy Atrium Courtyard to gather before clerical procession to the altar Narthex Connects entrance to atrium Nave Main body of church Christian Rome WHEN 4th 5th century CE WHERE Rome Meeting held to clarify FIRST TO Virgin Mary s role unclear until 4TH century CE Christ as human or immortal unclear as well 1 Combine Imperial family with Christianity in art 2 Show Christ enthroned to compare to a ruler and vice versa 3 Depict the Virgin Mary and build a church in her name MOST KNOWN FOR SIMMILAR TO 1 Combining New and Old Testament in artwork 2 Incorporating Pagan art in upper class Christian tombs 1 Imperial Rome Both depict youthful religious artwork Corinthian columns paid for by Imperial family covered in mosaics 2 Ancient Classic Rome Ionic columns paid for by Imperial family gold 1 Rome Mausoleum of Santa Costanza New St Peter s Basilica Basilica coffered ceilings covered by mosaics LOCATIONS TO KNOW AND WHY of Santa Maria Maggiore PEOPLE TO KNOW AND WHY TERMS 1 Theodosius II Held Council to discuss role of Christ and Mary 2 Nestorius Declared Mary as birth giver of Christ not of God Byzantine Empire WHEN WHERE 1 Architecture 2 Art Funerary church Christians buried on church ground by martyr s tomb Ambulatory Central vault Colonnade Structural sequence joining columns Putti Winged figured children Associated with paradise Quadriga Four horsed chariot Traditio Legis Giving of the law Typology Old Testament is precursor to New Testament ideas 313 CE Edict of Milan 1ST Imperial statement for Christians to worship without persecution 324 CE New capital at Greek Byzantine Renamed Constantinople 337 CE Constantine dies 379 395 CE Reign of Theodosius 395 CE Theodosius dies Empire split in two Constantinople capital of East Roman Empire 476 CE Collapse of West Roman Empire from northern nomad warriors Goths 527 565 CE Reign of Justinian Empire expands Reconquer Italy 1453 CE Collapse of East Rome Byzantine Empire when Constantinople is captured by Turks FIRST TO 1 Set fire to palace and church during Civil War 2 Use Justinian style architecture KNOWN FOR 1 Being a major trade route 2 Obelisk of Tutmoses III 3 Civil War during Justinian rule Conquers riot and returns to power SIMMILAR TO etc 1 Romans Narrative style picture marble gold tesserae narthex 2 Egyptians Obelisk perfect geometric form LOCATIONS TO KNOW AND WHY 1 Rome Hippodrome 2 Ravenna Italy Important port Church of San Vitale Sant Apollinaire in Classe 3 Constantinople Hagia Sophia PEOPLE TO KNOW AND WHY Justinian Emperor in 6TH century CE 1 2 Anthemius of Tralles Isidorus of Miletus Built Hagia Sophia and were not architects but a math and physics professor TERMS 1 Architecture Pendentives Area which fills in space between arch and domes

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LSU ARTH 1440 - Origins of Christian Imagery

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