COFC BIOL 201 - Exam 4 Endocrine Function

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Slide 1Endocrine FunctionDistinct FunctionsSlide 4Regulation of StomachRegulation of Small Intestine ActivityStomach Juices/Foodstuff (chyme)SecretinCCKGIPHormonalPituitary Gland (Master Gland)Anterior Lobe HormonesPosterior Lobe HormoneHormone InteractionsMechanism of ControlTropic HormonesInsulin ResistanceDiabetes MellitusHypovolemiaExam 4Endocrine FunctionEndocrine Function●Control and regulate organ systems and organ functions○diffuse communication■blood-borne chemicals → transmitters: Hormones■Wide-spread and long lasting○Endocrine Glands■ductless glands with very rich vascular network●hormones enter circulatory systemDistinct Functions●Regulation○homeostasis → ion, water, nutrient, thermoregulation ○cellular metabolism○Growth and development○Reproductive functionGiven this diffuse mechanism of communication, how do hormones target specific cells?●Requires specificity of RECEPTORS!!!○specific to different hormone chemical messengers○G-protein - linked, Secondary Messenger pathways■adenyl cyclase → cAMP■catalyzing/activating protein kinase●change cell function■specific intracellular function and mechanismsRegulation of Stomach Stomach(contractions and secretions)Cephalic Phase: sight, taste or smell of food+ trigger autonomic controlsympathetic NS “fight or flight” -Negative PositiveGastric Phase: -stretch of stomach muscles-activates receptors(enteric stretch receptors) -Food chemicals change pH → release of Gastrin-Feedback Mechanism if pH is too LOW (decrease of Gastrin secretion)Intestinal Phase: -digestion of SI duodenum → enteric reflex pathways → fatty acids and acidic gastric juicesHormones: -secretin-gastric inhibitory peptide-cholecystokininRegulation of Small Intestine Activity ●Enteric Reflexes○change stretch○change pH●+ Peristalsis and SegmentationStomach Juices/Foodstuff (chyme)●secretin●gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)●cholecystokinin (CCK)Secretin●inhibits gastric acid production and activity●stimulate HCO3- in SI to neutralize gastric acidCCK●presence of fats, fats take time to digest○slow gastric activityGIP●released in presence of carbohydrates○accompanied by glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1)●Act hormonally on pancreas to promote release of insulin○ready for carb absorptionHormonal●parathyroid hormone → active VD @ kidney, activated ○decrease ___ promotes absorption of Ca2+ absorption at SI●Aldosterone - promoted H2O and Na+ absorptionPituitary Gland (Master Gland)●Anterior lobe is glandular (meaning producing hormones) ●posterior lobe is NOT glandular (it is an extension of the hypothalamus) ○→ hormones produced by hypothalamus are transported and controlled by hypothalamusAnterior Lobe Hormones●Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) - tropic hormone, regulates gamete production, regulates activity of gamete●Luteinizing Hormone (LH) - tropic hormone, regulates gamete production, regulates activity of gamete●Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) - regulates adrenal cortex●Growth Hormone - regulates growth of muscle and long bones●Prolactin - stimulate development, promotes lactation, stimulates production of testosterone●Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) - controlling activity of thyroid glandPosterior Lobe Hormone●Oxytocin - regulates uterine contraction; triggers lactation●Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) - regulates absorption at the nephronHormone Interactions●Permissiveness○require the binding of 2 or more hormones to alter cell function●Synergism○interaction of 2 or more hormones which enhance the effect of each individual hormone●Antagonism○interaction of 2 or more hormones which interrupt to effect of each individual hormonesMechanism of Control●Humoral Control○endocrine gland detect change in physiological state and responds to correct it (ex. parathyroid gland)■→ sensor, controller, effector (via hormones)●Neural Control○endocrine gland responds to neural stimulation■brain is the controller (ex. adrenal gland)■endocrine gland is the effector ●Hormonal Control○endocrine gland is controlled by hormones released by a different endocrine gland■→ 2nd endocrine gland (controller) releases tropic hormonesTropic Hormones●produced by one endocrine gland to control another endocrine gland○Follicle Stimulating Hormone → ovaries and gonads○Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) → adrenal gland affects the hormones it produces○Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) → stimulates Thyroid Hormone○Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP) → responds as result of high blood pressure → effects kidney and adrenal glandInsulin Resistance●excessive insulin leads to decrease in GLUT4 glucose receptors●metabolic acidosis●high triglycerides and free fatty acid levels in blood●supra acide dismutase - mitochondrial antioxidant mechanism●cortisol (stress hormone) decreases GLUT4 receptorsDiabetes Mellitus●Greek “siphon” latin “sweet like honey”●Symptoms○Hunger○Thirst○Frequent and excessive urination○fatigue ●glucose is in the blood and urine → NOT in the tissues → cells yelling to brain “we are hungry!!!”●Chronically High Blood sugar damages the vasculature○thickening of basement membrane and endothelial hyperplasia○reduced blood flow○poor glucose control○reduced diffusion of oxygen●Damage○the nerves○blood vessels (less elastic) ○retina○kidneyHypovolemia●Reduced blood flow, impaired healing → ●low flow, high tissue glucose/O2 , rapid aggressive infection → ●amputation to contain


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COFC BIOL 201 - Exam 4 Endocrine Function

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