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POLS 204 Lecture : Institutions• puzzles and road map• what are institutions & why do they exist• why do institutions seem so real, take them for granted?• what are the different purposes institutions serve?• how are they enforced?• length of time they last?• why do some change so rapidly & unexpectedly?• why do some become democracies or dictatorships• what are institutions?• rules, information & incentives that channel individual behavior into patterns of social order.• school is an institution• Institutions = information• rules foster knowledge & beliefs that motivate individuals into social patterns and social order• syllabus• most individuals do not know each other but they know the rules• institutios relay choices that others have made so that we can predict and act accordingly• anticipation and ability to adjust behavior• Institutions = Carrot and stick• reward for following rules• punishment for breaking rules• institutions and information about consequences associated with following & breaking the rules• Types of institutions• Social conventions : foot binding• moral/ ethical norms : eye-for-an-eye• body of laws• property rights• measure of time• family structure• ethnic categories• political institutions• Male Circumcision• ethnic data set• The paradox of institutions• human made• only persists if everyone agrees to keep abiding by the rules & to conform the the expectations• they could be different• they fade into the background• channel preferences• what i want my need to involve others, and their wants• work together to get what everyone wants• i need to anticipate others in order to make sure i get what i want, power• conflict of interest• income• ideology• sector, occupation• age• geography• people dis-agree• taxation• tariffs, subsidies, regulation• cultural, social policy• support for programs aimed at different regions• Informal vs. formal institutions?• informal• participation is voluntary• socially shared & unwritten• un written rules• communicated & enforced without legal code or state• village, nation, or religious group• interact with government• political gout• Not behavioral regularities• remove hat in church = informal institution• take jacket off in restrung = behavioral regularity• does not hurt or impact others• being ostracized, can be stronger than a law• often subtle, hidden, or even illegal• sanctions range from hostile remarks - violence• Mob• Why are there informal institutions in politics?• uncertianty causes people to group together with likeminded individuals• rural areas, more "gentleman's agreements"• Formal institutions• enforcing rules are out sourced to police etc..• mind your own business• haow are institutions enforced?• Sellf - Enforced• generally informal institutions• participation is voluntary, in my best interest• 2 main types• A: those that don't hurt anyone & make people better off• B: power hungry people• 3rd party • generally formal• how do they emerge?• spontaneous• evolve over time, not intensional, just works• change via selective pressure & without forethought• result of trial and error• individuals emulate & reproduce what works• competitive pressure• monogomy• Intensional• anticipated, institutional engineers• issues of self interest• solve specific collective problems• A: those that don't hurt anyone & make people better off• increse efficiency• Stag Hunt (want more efficiency)• game theory• institution could solve this problem• share the same beliefs, share goals• can get trapped in a less efficient institution• foot binding• Functionalist Theory of institution• Invisable hand theory• share the stag equally, distribution rule• Conflict of interest & power?• how to divide the stag?• decision making power?• key to life. who gets to set the rules.• Partisan Institutions• designed to give some actor an advantage• institutions reflect political power Not the most efficient solutions• Institutions "lock in" an uneven distribution of power• Why would weaker parties agree to institutions that are "unfair"?• want help to organize collective organizations• they are better off under the institution • informal institution • Battle of the Sexes• 3 possibilities• How to drive a hard Bargain• compel others to do mostly what you want whith out having them walk away from the

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UW POL S 204 - Institutions

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