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Sociology is 10 19 2013 The systematic study of human social life groups and societies A wide range of topics Brief exchanges between people Global historic processes change What seems personal is socially constructed Sociological Imagination c wright mills Making choices o Culture individual choices o Individual lives big picture The promise of sociology is the ability to link biography with history Studies our lives society Social structure patterns of characteristics behavior that shape Social process intended and unintended consequences of behavior Social reproduction transformation continuity change in human Social problems inequalities Beginnings Theorists 10 19 2013 17th 18th Century ideas renaissance man is the measure of all thing enlightenment personhood rational individualism What drives the train of social change Ideas education Material culture economic life o Industrialization o Urbanization o Individualism o Science The new science of sociology combined Humanism rational study of human society Empiricism methods of the natural sciences Subject matter Early sociologists Auguste Comte 1798 1857 19th Century o Aftermath of the french revolution Things that can be observed or which have observable conquences Theology religion seemed less relevant Need a new science social criticism Highest form of science Would dethrone theology logical positivism apply sociology to solve social problems Harriet Martineau 1802 1876 o Emerging American culture o Feminist abolitionist o Why do slavery subordination exist in free societies Predicted slavery would split the states Karl Marx 1818 1883 o Industrial revolution o Historic materialism o Why is there class conflict Class conflict Capitalists own control means of production Proletariat workers exploited alienated Exploited the worker is not paid the value they add to the product Alienated no meaningful connection to their work unable to clearly see the conditions in which they live Global revolution classless society Emile Durkheim 1848 1917 o French industrial revolution o Sociology is objective science Study of social facts Society is more than just the sum of individuals Society shapes behavior not just psychology Social construction of reality society is bigger than the biology sum of it s parts cohesion o Why does society hold together What s the basis of social Social change division of labor Specialization replaces religion as the basis of social o Suicide examined in Catholic Protestant area cohesion 3 social contexts loss of meaning breakdown of consensus anomie characteristic of modern society unable to get a grip disconnect Catholic s had more clarity in their lives so they had lower rates loneliness egoistic over identification altruistic suicide bombers personal choice is socially constructed Max Weber 1864 1920 o Industrial revolution o sympathetic understanding getting inside the experience o how do ideas change societies Protestant Ethic the spirit of capitalism specifics of theology caused capitalism Bureaucracy the iron cage George Herbert Mead 1863 1931 o Modern society o symbolic interactionism see sec 3 o interpersonal interaction identity is constructed through interaction not biologically driven or psychologically hidden we become ourselves in intracting life in a drama front stage vs back stage behavior Summary Observed social economic change Advocated systematic scientific observations o Differ on Role of material life vs ideas How scientific sociology can be In focus on macro vs micro Building on the Founders 10 19 2013 Functionalism functions Builds on Durkheim Comte Robert Merton manifest latent o Intended vs emerging outcome of action o Functions vs dysfunctions bureaucracy is efficient impersonal Conflict Theory Critical Sociology Builds on Marx ideology power built of a material base o Inequalities of race gender class sexual orientation age etc Symbolic Interactionism see Mead sec 2 Builds on Weber Mead o Making interpretation of meaning o Micro social interaction o Everyday social construction of gender race etc Research Process 10 19 2013 Qualitative vs Quantitative which method is appropriate for the question Steps 1 define the problem select the topic define topic in terms of what you ll observe o operationalization how does this phenomena operate 2 review the literature what s been learned fame 3 formulate hypotheses what questions will you test 4 select research design survey o types cross sectional one longitudinal multiple over a long period of time o mode of delivery personal interviews telephone interviews mail survey random digit dialing rdd web survey o types of questions open ended flexible detailed closed ended difficult to write but easy to analyze good for when you know the population participant observation ethnography o living with participating in the live of subjects o good for qualitative research under researched topics pilot studies focus groups o difficult to find patterns trends generalize o researcher presence can introduce a bias change findings experiments social psychology o field experiments ex Religious affiliation hiring discrimination ex Religion race discrimination concerns ethics deception o lab experiments ex Responses to inequality computer game ability to control external influences can over simplify social setting experimental effects influence findings 5 Define the problem who do we talk to how many o Random sample every member of a population has equal chance of being included in the sample for study o Sampling error ex Undercounting in US census public policy unrepresentative samples invalid conclusions o Larger numbers do not greater accuracy quantitative studies averages trends correlation causation qualitative studies patterns I behavior or narratives 6 Collect the data 7 Data analysis 8 Publish the findings Research aims Validity describes reality Reliability repeatable and consistent Generalizability represents broader processes Family 10 19 2013 Traditionally a group of people related by blood marriage or adoption who share a common residence can add economic cooperation reproduction socially approved sexual relations between two adults Contemporary an intimate group of two or more people how live together in a committed relationship care for one another children share activities close emotional ties Marriage In the 1950 s average age was 22 8 20 3 in 2010 it s 28 2 26 1 Cohabitation a first step toward marriage o Usually lasts a year o Alternative

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OSU SOC 204 - Sociology

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