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FAD4936 Exam 3 Study Guide (Chapters 11-14)Chapter 11: The Oldest-Old and Caregiving:Additional Notes: - Statistics involving Oldest- Old: o Now: 11.5% of people are (85+) between 3.8 and 4.4 million o Future projected: 23% (85+) approx. 14.7 million- Young- Old: 65-74- Old- Old: 75-84- Oldest- Old: 85+ - Life Satisfaction: Sense of well- being experienced and identified by the individual, not something recorded by measure external to the individual. o Satisfaction in later life seems to depend on person’s ability to master environment effectively and feel a sense of accomplishment o Between 80-90 years one starts to admit that they are “old.” A clear awareness that the spirit is willing but the body is unable to cooperate emerges. 1. Caregiving distress- indicates the negative stresses of caregiving - Problems in caregiving include: o Strain of responsibility for direct personal care of elder o Caregiver’s own personal health problems o Role strain from demands of other work and need for leisure o Inter- sibling problems and other strained family relationships o Arranging outside help and coping with finances 2. Coping- response to the demands of a stressful situations. Coping techniques vary from person to person. Coping situations vary from coping with stressors from caregiving to person w/Alzheimer’s coping w/ their disease. 3. Formal (Outside support) and Informal caregiving (spousal & adult children) - Informal Caregiving o Three generation is becoming more common, as this type of caregiving is the preferenceo Comes from relationships that exists naturally in a person’s life (family, friends, church groups exc.) o Stress and expense of caregiving can cause relationship between caregiver and care recipient can become intense and complex. o Most commonly carried out by a spouse, followed by a daughter- Formal Caregiving o comes from professionals, hospitals, nursing homeso Staff are paraprofessionals or professionals that are paid for caregiving. 4. Weakened family support- fewer offspring are available to offer support while more people are living into the old- old category (more people need help; not enough children to help them) - Factors contributing to WFS: o Demography, including fewer offspring and longevity o Women’s changing roles o Changing intergenerational relationships (adult children more likely to live far away; basis for help is more for psychological reasons than economic reasons) - Greatest predictor of whether or not person will enter a nursing home is if women are present. 5. Robust aging- “successful aging” and the maintaining of good mental and physical status. - Those that that fit with this category report: greater social contact, better health and vision, and have experienced fewer life events in the past three years. 6. Physical health of the aged group 75-84 and those 85+- The 75-84 age group is by far healthier and happier than depicted by stereotypes - Physical losses begin to take their toll after 85 - Those who don’t suffer from severe impairments can exhibit a broad range of healthfulness and well-being. People in their 90s are often very healthy and robust. 7. Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)/Personal Activities of Daily Living (PADLs or ADLs)- IADLs: Shopping, housework, money management, meal preparation - PADLs/ ADLs: bathing, eating, dressing, getting in and out of bed, walking to get things- Less than half of 85+ need help with ADLs and about 60% need help with IADLs 8. Intergenerational norms- standard, expected behaviors of one generation towards another. - Women are more likely expected to help than men because women seem more acceptable to provide personal care. Men and women also view and handle caregiving differently. - Canadian study shows that most people think that emotional support should and could be provided by adult children. Some believed that they should provide physical assistance and a majority believed they should help out financially. Conclusions are that children feel strong moral obligation to provide care for disabled parents. - Most adult children take care of their parents through a sense of responsibility they feel towardsthem 9. Psycho-social interventions- usually intended for caregiver - Individual Counseling - Family Counseling- Support groups- usually available in larger communities at mental health clinics - Educational Groups - Social Worker Visits - Problem- solving groups for caregiver and patient 10. Paraprofessional caregivers- include Nurses aids, personal care attendants, chore workers who are paid to assist professionals in caring for elder in a nursing home, doctor’s office, hospiceexc. 11. Respite care- Provides alternative care for a short time (about 2 weeks) - Alleviates stress for the caregiver - Improves functioning of the dependent elder 12. Modified nuclear family- describes the typical American situation. There is a great deal of family interaction like visiting and exchanging gifts/ services, but there is no extended family household.- Most elders live in separate households, but they are not cut off from their families. Chapter 12: Special Problems1. Theoretical Explanations of elder abuse See table 12.3 on page 329- Psychological Model- Relationship of violent behavior to aggressive personality traits; at the most sever end of physical aggression, large proportions of elder abusers have histories of mental illness and or substance abuse. - Situational Model- Abuse as a problem of caregiving; high levels of stress and burden of caregiving increase mistreatment and neglect of the frail elder. - Symbolic Interaction Model- Each person approaches in interaction with personal definitions and expectations; if behaviors match the roles expected, the interaction continues, otherwise conflict arises. The caregiver’s subjective sense of stress related to the dependency tasks createsstress, not the tasks themselves. - Social Exchange Theory- When each individual contributes equally, a fair exchange results; when one party is unable to reciprocate, the exchange is seen as being unfair. Unequal distribution of power in caregiving situations can result in abuse. - Feminist Theory- Identifies violence as a tactic of entitlement and power that is deeply gendered, rather than a conflict tactic that is personal and gender neutral. Is more successful at explaining wife abuse rather than child or elder abuse. - Ecological Model- Focuses on behavior within the social


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FSU FAD 4936r - Exam 3 Study Guide

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