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STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONSINTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL EDUCATION4 historical periods for persons with disabilities AND name an event or practice that epitomizes that period?1. Seclusion and Isolation … 1940s-Middle Ages: 1300-1500 Trephining Practice was one treatment for illnessseen as evil (Drilling into skulls); Schools for priesthood or elites (tutoring), apprenticeships or no education for most-1700-1800s: Schools formed offered promise (1878 Cleveland 2 day classes for special ed), Prison reforms, Braille and wheelchairs invented, Eugenics – the practice of improving genetic quality of human population (handicappism), People of note: Helen Keller, FDR-1948: Only 12% of all children with disabilities received special education services, Supreme Court ruling supported: exclusion of a young boy w/Cerebral Palsy was justified because he “produced a depressing and nauseating effect upon teachers and school children”2. Integration 1950s -1979-1954: Brown v. Board of Education – Landmark civil rights case finding education a right for all-1960s: President John F. Kennedy pushed many special education laws through Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services; Civil Rights Act -1963-1971: PARC – Est. the right to a free public education for student w/intellectual disabilities-1972: Mills v. District of Columbia Board of Education – Est. the right to a free public education for ALL students w/disabilities-1973: Vocational Rehabilitation Act (SECT 504)-1975: PL-94-142 – EHA later IDEA was passed, provided federal funding for public education of students w/disabilities3. Inclusion 1980-19901980s-1990s: Least restrictive environment, mainstreaming, inclusion, discipline, ADA in 1990 (Americans w/ Disabilities Act)- prohibits discrimination based on disability4. Empowerment 1991 to present1991-Present: Juvenile justice issues, charter schools, curriculum-based measurement, standards-based assessments/accountability, NCLB-2001 (No Child Left Behind)- standards-based edu. reform5 guarantees from P.L.94-142 (EAHCA) that continue today in IDEA (Individuals w Disabilities Education Improvement Act) 2004? Know the acronyms, too.1. Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)-Free = Special education & related services at no cost-Appropriate = “Educational Benefit”-Public = Zero rejection/zero exclusion principle can not be excluded on the basis of a disability-Education = Specially designed instruction & related services-Established categories of Disabilities (14 from quiz)2. Nondiscriminatory and Multidisciplinary Assessment-Prior to being placed in special education it must be determined that the student has an IDEIA related disability and that the student needs special education-This must be determined using a valid assessment- -School districts are required to adopt: GProcedures to assure that testing of children w/ disabilities will be selected and administered so as not to be racially or culturally discriminatory. GSuch materials or proceduresshall be provided and administered in the child’s native language or mode of communication, unless it is clearly not feasible to do so, and no single procedure shall be the sole criterion for determining an appropriate education program for a child-Assessments must be conducted by a team (multidisciplinary assessment): Trained personnel from several disciplinesGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG3.   Due Process: Parental safeguards & Involvement - -IDEA places a large emphasis on parental involvement in almost every aspect of the special education process: Consent prior to assessment, consent to educational setting, request an independent assessment, participate in the process of the planning of the IEP, request a review or copy of student records, and due process to challenge the identification, assessment, placement or FAPE.4. Individualized Education Program (IEP)- written statement for a student receiving services under IDEA describing the educational objectives for that student & the special services to be provided -key features: Statements of- student’s present level of academic achievement & functional performance, measurable annual goals, specific special education, related services & supplementary aids, services & supports, how child’s disability affects involv and progress in gen ed curric,how progress will be meaures; dates for beginning of services, freq, location, modifications5. Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)- To the maximum extent possible, children with disabilities are educated w/non-disabled peers. There must be a continuum of placements and the child be placed in the LRE(least restrictice environ) that is appropriate.-2004 Amendments – The reauthorization of IDEA aligned with many aspects of NCLB: Requires participation in state and local assessments, reporting, and accountability, highly qualified teachers, evidence based practice; Changes to IEP; Changes in the way students w/learning disabilities are identified, Early Intervening ServicesCompare and contrast the following laws: IDEIA, NCLB, Sec. 504, & ADA.Eligibility Major ProvisionsIDEIA/IDEA “2004”/P.L.94-142Must be meet eligibility requirements of 14 categories. Serves ages 0-21 and must affect educational performanceFAPEIEPLREDUE PROCESSNondiscriminatory & Multidisciplinary AssessmentSec. 504 Having a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits him orher in one major life activity, and having experienced discrimination resulting from this physical or mental impairment based upon the child’s disability as it presents itself without mitigating measures• Reasonable Accommodations- modify classroom program, aides,give more time• Related Services: speech/language pathology, occupational or physical therapy, or counseling. • Procedural safeguardsADA/ADA-AA Having a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits him orher in one major life activity, and having experienced discrimination resulting from this physical or mental impairment based upon the child’s • Employment:• Transportation:• Public Accommodations:• Government• Telecommunicationsdisability as it presents itself without mitigating measuresNCLB All school age children must reach proficiency in reading, math, & science…will be

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