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- Sensation- process by which sensory receptor neurons detect info and transmit it to the braino Detecting light, sound, odor, sensing environment- Perception- interpretation of sensory inputo Recognizing what you see, understanding what you hear, knowing etc.- Habituation- learning to be bored by the familiar, to not respond to a repeated stimuluso Show a blue circle repeatedly to an infant they get bored and look away, show a red circle and they regain interest has discriminated between the two stimuli- Preferential Looking- a preference for one thing over anothero How long an infant looks at one object over anothero Prefer to look at what they can see well- Infant visual perception:o Visual acuity- ability to perceive detail 40x worse than adults but improves across 1st month of life to ~20/120 vision, objects are blurry unless ~8in from face or are bold w/ sharp contrast/contouro Visual accommodation- ability of lens of eye to change shape to bring objects at different distances into focus takes 6mo-1yr before infant can see as well as adulto Pattern Perception- attracted to contour, movement, moderately complexpatternso Depth Perception- size constancy recognize that an object is the same size despite changes in its distance from the eye Visual Cliff- tests the depth perception of infants conducted by Gibson and Walk- an elevated glass platform that creates the illusion of depth, one shallow side, one deep sidemothers on opposite side coax their child to cross- 27/36 crossed shallow side, 3/36 crossed deep side infants of crawling age (>7mo) perceive depth and are afraid of drop offs, 2 months old perceive a difference but not a fear- Therapy for premature infants- Premature infants can have problems such as low birth rate, heart and respiratory problems however, most develop neurosensory impairments and academic problems as the child gets older. o To prevent these issues, therapy such as kangaroo care and massage therapy can help decrease these problems. Pre mature infants that experience kangaroo care settle into mature patterns of quiet sleep and alert wakefulness. Babies that experience massage therapy not only gain more weight but they also seem to be more relaxed and less aroused. - Development of Attention:o Attention- the focusing of perception and cognition on something in particularo Longer attention span: Longer attention span occurs from the ages of 5-6to 8-9 where those parts of the brain involved with attention become further mylinated. (beyond 8-9 not much increase)o More selective attention: deliberately concentrating on one thing while ignoring something else Btwn 3.5-4 yrs there is a significant increase in focused attno More systematic attention: Children search more slowly than adults and are less efficient. However, children older than 6 are very systematic (theyare able to visually search things faster and more efficiently than children younger than 6). ;- ADHD and Sex Differenceso ADHD(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)- symptoms= inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity; reveals itself in infancy, 5-9% of kids meet ADHD criteria At least 2 boys for every girl has ADHD Girls may be underdiagnosed b/c don’t show as much of the acting out Causes= low levels of dopamine and NE, genes, environment- Visual and Auditory problems of the aged:o Become noticible in 40so Sensory thresholds are raised (need more stimulation), perceptual abilities declineo Visual Changes in pupil Pupils become smaller and don’t change much to lighting greater difficulty seeing in dim, bright, and whenit suddenly changes Dark adaptation occurs more slowly Changes in lens Presbyopia- decreased ability of the lens to accommodate objects close to the eye b/c of thickening of lens w/ age Cataracts- cloudiness of the normal clear lens in your eye Visual acuity declines (more so in women than men) Retinal Changes Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)- results from damage to cells in the retina responsible for central vision blank/dark space in center of an image leading cause of blindness in elderly Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP): A group of hereditary disorders that all involve gradual deterioration of the light sensitive cells of the retina. (visual problems at night, loss of peripheral vision) Glaucoma- increased fluid pressure in the eye, can damage the optic nerve and and can cause a progressive loss of peripheral vision and ultimately blindness Other examples: Diabetic retinopathy, Age-related macular degeneration.o Auditory Hearing impairment is ~3 times as prevalent as visual impairment among older adults  95% of adults age 65+ have at least mildly impaired hearing  Most age-related hearing problems originate in the inner ear  Hearing problems range from wax build up to infections to sluggish nervous systems Presbycusis- problems of the aging ear (loss of sensitivity) to high frequency or high pitched sounds Older adults have more difficulty understanding conversations even under ideal listening conditions More noticeable in men than women- Cognitive psychologist- doctor that studies mental processes (attention, language use, perception, memory, prob solving, thinking)o Jean Piagetbecame intrigued by the fact that children make same or similar mental mistakes ;- Piageto methods: ;began observing his own 3 children then studied larger sampleclinical method- the flexible question and answer technique usedto discover how children think about problemso schema: cognitive structures- organized patterns of actions or thought thatpeople construct to interpret their experiences; a set of rules or procedures that provide structure to our cognition.o assimilation: process by which we interpret new experience in terms of existing ;schemes or cognitive structures; we deal with our environment inour own terms, by bending the world to squeeze it into our own existing categories. For example, labeling a dog “doggie”. o object permanence: (otherwise known as object concept) fundamental understanding that objects continue to exist when they are no longer visible or otherwise detectable to the senses, developed gradually over the sensorimotor period, up thru ~4-8 months it is “out of sight, out of mind”o disequilibrium: uncomfortable state of mind that child seeks to resolve (lack of balance), stimulates cognitive growth and formation of more adequate understandingso


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UMD EDHD 320 - Notes

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