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RADIATA: (DIPLOBLASTS – 2 germ layers (no mesocoel mesoderm )) Porifera (Parazoa) CtenophoraComb jellies CnidariaAnthozoa (basal) , sScyphozoan, HydrozoaBody PlanTotipotent cellsMesohyl – jelly like matrixSkeletal elts – calcium carbonate Mesenchyme = mesoglea True tissues Tendency to form colonies2 embryonic layers – ectoderm, entodermMesenchyme SymmetryRadially symmetrical or asymmetrical biradially symmetrical – spherical, oval Radial symmetrical SupportNo tissues, collagen Spicules (formed by Sclerocytes) True tissuesElastic mesenchyme Mesoglea cellular LocomotionSessile One pair of tentacles (retractile), cilia Pelagic (live in open ocean)Ctenes – comb-like move back and forthTentacles – jet propulsion – mesdusaCurrent, polyp (sedentary)Feeding andDigestionPores and canalsFilter feeders, intracellular digestion Amoebocytes – transport nutrientsAnal pores Colloblasts – catch prey – on tentacles, mouthExtracellular digestion No anus Coeclenteron – gastrovascular cavity Use cnidae – stinger toxin, or cilia, tentaclesCirculationAquiferous system (ostia – oscula, choanocytes, pinaderm, choanoderm)Diffusion NoneExcretionDiffusion Anal pores, Diffusion DiffsuionDiffusionGas ExchangeDiffusion Diffusion Diffusion Nervous SystemNone-can reconstitute themselves Not centralized nerve net Apical sense organs (opposite of mouth), statolith, with 4 long cilia balancers Nerve net (possesses neurons) Nematocyst, ocelli, statocyst, rhopaliumCnidae (stinger), in cnidocyte Larvae Cydippid larva Planula ReproductionAsexual: - budding, gemmules, regenerationMonomorphic – one body form Regeneration Dimorphic life cycle (polyp, medusa)Medusa (free-swimming), hydroidSexual – sequential hermaphrotism, internal or external fertilization Hermaphroditic, shed gametes into water + fertilization (cylindrical, attached) – alternation of generations DEUTEROSTOMIA:Echinodermata Hermichordata Chordata Body PlanArticulating plates Tripartite Acorn worms Benthic, solitary, vermiform Differentiated regions Muscular postanal tailSegmented body (myomeres) SymmetryPentaramious radial symmetry Oral-aboral axis Bilaterally symmetrical Bilaterally symmetricalSupportCalcareous ossicles (endoskeleton)Ambulacral grooves – inbetween podia Spines and tubercles , ossicles 2 long. Vessel sMiddorsal / midventral longit. RidgesCartilage replaced by a backbone LocomotionTube feet (podia – outer) Crawl, swim, podia, burrow, muscles Proboscis Muscular movements, undulations of body Feeding andDigestionGut usually complete Suspension, scavengers, Aristotle’s lanternBlind sac stomach – can be everted, reduced anus Proboscis – short and conical – mucous Gut – straight tube, move by cilia Direct deposit, suspension, Pharyhgeal endostyle, thyroid glandComplete gutCirculationOpen circulatory system – large coelom Diffusion Osmoregulation Open circulatory system 2 long. Vessels Pharyngeal gill slits Pharyngeal gill slits – mucous covered Ventral heart, vessels Incurrent oral siphon, and excurrent ExcretionNone Diffusion / OsmoregulationDiffusion Gas ExchangeCoelomocytes Diffusion / OsmoregulationGills Through body wall – epithelium Nervous SystemDecentralized, nerve ring Diffuse, no cerebral ganglion Dorsal (hollow) nerve cord Neurocord – collar Dorsal notochord Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Larvae Larvae – bilaterally symmetrical Tornaria larva Tornaria larva (notochord and nerve net lost in adults) –tadpoleReproductionSexual: Diecious, indirect dev. Direct. Dev. Asexual: regeneration, fissiparitytiary Sexual: diecious, fert. External,Asexual: regeneration, budding Diecious, hermaphroditic, dorsal ganglia Metamorphosis PLATYZOA (also considered to be in Lophotrochozoa ) : Platyhelminthes GastrotrichaBlastocoelomateRotifer a BlastocoelomateAcanthocephalaBlastocoelomateBody Plan,RegionsTriploblastic Acoelomate Interstitial Acoelomate Head, trunk, foot Eutelic Always parasitic in intestines SymmetryBilaterally symmetrical Dorsoventrally flat Cephalized Bilaterally symmetrical Dorsoventrally flat Bilateral symmetry Bilaterally symmetrical Vermiform SupportCellular mesenchyme (no mesoglea), cilia Syncytial ( cells run together)Ventral mucous gland cells Full body spines and cilia Ventral ciliary looping Long, obliq, circ, musclesLayered cuticle, layers – fiber Cuticle (soft) and epidermis Cicr. and long. Muscles Hydrostatic skeleton Tegument, gelatinous Long. circ. Muscles (in sheets)Ligament sacsTegument LocomotionCilia, mucous, muscles (cir, long. Diag, -subepidermal) Cilia 2 toes with adhesive tubules Cilia on corona Anchor toes = creepSome sessile; adhesive diskAttach to host intestine -Vertebrate → arthropod (intermediate host) life cycleFeeding andDigestionParenchyma – cells b/w body wall + gut No anus, incomplete intestineCarnivorous, scavengers, some parasitic Muscular pharynx + ciliary currentFeed on organic material Digestive tract ciliated Corona (cilary suspension), mastaxSome have coronal spines Proboscis Lemnesci – work of extrustion proboscis Parasitic CirculationNone Diffusion None – osmoregulation Lacunar system, ProtonephridiaExcretionProtonephridia Nephridiopore + tubule + terminal bulb – flame bulb (cilia)Diffusion 1 pair ProtonephridiaNone – osmoregulation1 pair of Protonephridia Diffusion Gas ExchangeNone Diffusion None – osmoregulation Diffusion NervousSystemPair of anterior ganglia – near head, 2 nerve cords Cerebral ganglion connected to top of pharynx; nerve cord Tactile receptors – face Cerebral ganglia 2 major long. nerves Chemosensory pits, oceli, oscellious Behavioral modification to hostReproductionHermaphroditic Hermaphroditic Parthenogenesis DieciousParthenogenesis Direct development Few large eggs Males absent or reduced; dieciousAltern. of gen. – envior fac. - summFemales – ovarian ballsAcanthor larvaeLOPHOTROCHOZOA LOCOTROPHOZA : protostome Cycliophora Gnathostomulida EntoproctaBlastocoelomateAnnelida Nemertea Sip h uncula Body Plan,RegionsAcoelomate Vermiform – interstitial Anus insideBlastocoelomate True coelom (eucoelomate)Stay moist Functionally acoelomate MarineVeriform EucoelomateSymmetryIrregular bilateral Bilateral symmetry Functionally radial Bilaterally symm. Bilaterally symmet. Dorsoventrally flat Bilaterally symm.SupportMesenchymal Adhesive disk attach to host Sup, epidermal muscles (mostly long.) Mesenchyme Thin cuticle Epidermal muscle

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