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2-2-2012two different systems of cognitionsystem 1 (ancient)all parts of our thinking that are quick, intuitive, and effortlesspattern detection. Unconscious- feeds results to system 2step outside room and see someone walking- is it someone I know? Special part of brain that recognizes faces- people who have damage to this part of the brain can not recognize faces.Tell you- do I like this person or not? Are they dangerous?System 2Part of our thinking that is more slow and deliberate. Uses logic and rationality.When people have a stroke- system 2 is more likely to be damaged.Develops much later- takes a long timeSystem 1 influences system 2The Dunning Kruger effectIn-competence leads to too much confidenceThey are so bad that they don’t realize how bad they really are.American idol auditionsPeople that are over competent are actually under competentAssume that people around them are always better- hard to remember that things don’t come as easily to everyone elseWe are all by nature really bad at critical thinking- incompetentUse intuition to study personality (Disney movies)People who are physically ugly are evil, mean, bitter, villainAttractive- nice, kind, thoughtful, empatheticphysical attractiveness is characterized by confidence, narcissism, much more likely to behave rudely (above average). Unattractive people are more likely to be nicehalo effect- everyone who is attractive is nice, funny, talented… etc.can cover over time the bad characteristicsan ugly person can be made attractive by their good personality.Why are we studying personality scientifically?Thales of Miletus (6th cent B.C.)The natural world is lawful, and the laws of nature are discoverablePeople assumed that spirits animated the wind… etc.Supernatural agency- use magic to notice correlationsThales said that he was not disputing that there is something greater but supernatural explanations don’t get you anywhere when trying to explain thingsArguments from authority mean nothing- question everythingIn-group and out-groupTold followers to challenge everything that I am teaching you- still be part of the in-groupForm community that is a training ground for critical thinking.Objective observations…Science serves as a corrective to our built in biasesDon’t rely on “arguments from authority” (i.e., question authority)Stay humble: you have lots of biases- your thoughts may be falseBe wary of group thinkInnovate new ways of thinking (without being kicked out of the group)Rely on objective evidence, replicable experimentsIn essence, science yields evolution of new ideas (mutation and natural selection)Computers, phones, tabletsTrait approachTraitA stable attribute of personalityEX- impulsivity, warmth, agreeableness, hostility, dominance. Etc.Traits are dimensional rather than categorical, with each person somewhere in a continuumTrait is on a spectrumThere is a level- middle groundMeasure level of introversion and extroversion- all are somewhere on the continuum.Trait approach ignores underlying causes, just focuses on traits are predictors of future behaviorsThe best way to predict what someone will do in the future is to look at what they have done in the pastSituationist critique (Mischel): are traits really stable across situations?Average level of happiness when I was in 8th grade: 7Average level of happiness when I was 7: 10How happy am I now: 8Every person has a certain happiness set point.You can increase your base line2-7-2012Correlation coefficient: measures strength of association between two variablesRules of thumb0.<r<0.2 weakly correlated0.2<r<0.5 moderately correlated0.5<r strongly correlatedcorrelation does not imply causation (logical fallacy)Reliability: if you repeat the study you are likely to get the same type of results every time you do it.IQ test: the WAISIf you give someone the full IQ test then give it to the same person a month later, the correlation is about .5Knowledge of one variable tells you the other.Assessment of traits: personality testsReliability: the similarity of results on a test across different measurements. (how consistent is the test)Myers BriggsValidity: the degree to which a given instrument (or experiment) actually measures what it purports to measure (how valid is the test?)A) projective tests- e.g., Rorschach(100 years ago), Draw-a-person, TAT(70 years ago), (handwriting analysis?)AdvantagesThey don’t know what you are giving away- impression managementInk blot- food responses and maturity- invalidMake use of color- well integrated emotional life-invalidB) Objective testsThe scoring and interpretation are both really straight forward. No whimsical interpretation. Any two psychologists come up with the same results. Self report.2-9-2012Objective tests: (TAT, Draw a Person, Handwriting?)Rational method- each item rationally derived from underlying theoryThe roommate testBase only on rational method then we have a theory that something is important.Empirical method- “data-driven” (not relying on theory)Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)550 items true false- “I tend to be somewhat on guard to people who are friendlier than I expected”theory would say true but the empirical method would say falseAdvantage= not transparent, so hard to fake repliesyou don’t know exactly what they are looking for so you are more honest with your answersDisadvantage= “shrinkage”; often poor validityEvery time you are tested with the empirical test you get a shrinkage responseThe depression scale is inaccurateFactor analysis- sophisticated extension of rational methodUses sophisticated statistics to help measure target constructCluster of items that are heavily correlatedBig Five- factor analysis of 17,953 trait words- 5 underlying factorsAllport’s theory- if there is any meaningful trait, we should have a word for itRating themselves and others by using these words16 underlying dimensions- they correlated with each otherCosta and McCray found that there were only 5 dimensionsThey replicate across cultures, age, etc.…find in the newspaper an exampled of a reporter confusing correlation and causation- paragraphBig Five:Neuroticism- negative emotionallyReactive- high negative emotionally- more likely to develop a mental illness- shorten one’s life expectancy. Higher hormones.Ever alert to possibility that something might go wrongHighly sensitive to the distress/ pain of othersEasily discouraged or overwhelmedResilient- low negative

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KU PSYC 120 - Lecture notes

Course: Psyc 120-
Pages: 57
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