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JOUR 460 Study Guide 3 Ch 11 Scale set of symbols or numbers so constructed that the symbols or numbers can be assigned by a rule to the individuals or their behaviors or attitudes to whom the scale is applied Scaling procedures for assigning numbers or other symbols to properties of an object to impart some numerical characteristics to the properties in question What is a good scale Types of Scales Graphic Rating Scale measurement scales include a graphic continuum anchored by two extremes La Z Boy recliners uncomfortable comfortable Likert Scale measurement scales in which the respondent specifies a level of agreement or disagreement with statements expressing either a favorable or an unfavorable attitude toward the concept under study Semantic Differential Scales measurement scales that examine the strengths and weaknesses of a concept by having the respondent rank it between dichotomous pairs of words or phrases that could be used to describe it Unidimensional Scales scales designed to measure only one dimensions of a concept respondent or object Multidimensional scales scales designed to measure several dimensions of a concept respondent or object Itemized Rating Scale measurement scales in which the respondent selects an answer from a limited number of ordered categories Noncomparative Scales measurement scales in which judgement is made without references to another object concept or person Rank Order Scales measurement scales in which the respondent compares two or more items and ranks them Comparative Scales measurement scales in which one object concept or person is compared with another on a scale Paired Comparison Scales measurement scales that ask the respondent to pick one of two objects in a set based on some stated criteria Constant Sum Scales measurement scales that ask the respondent to divide a given number of points typically 100 among two or more attributes based on their importance to him or her Stapel Scales measurement scales that require the respondent to rate on a scale ranging from 5 to 5 how closely and in what direction a descriptor adjective fits a given concept Purchase Intent Scales scales used to measure a respondent s intention to Balanced Scales measurement scales that have the same number of positive buy or not buy a product and negative categories Nonbalanced Scales measurements that are weighed toward one end or the other end of the scale Forced vs Unforced whether there is a don t know option if not it creates a forced choice for the respondent and makes them concentrate on his or her feelings This could cause inaccurate data Midpoint Ch 12 Questionnaire set of questions designed to generate the data necessary to accomplish the objectives of the research project also called an interview schedule or survey instrument Standardize vs uniformity Criteria for a good questionnaire Does it provide the necessary decision making information Does it consider the respondent Does it meet editing and coding requirements Skip Pattern sequence in which questions are asked based on a respondent s answer Screeners questions used to identify appropriate respondents Coding the process of grouping and assigning numeric codes to the various responses to a question Prompters short encouraging statements to rebuild respondent interest Pre test trial run of a questionnaire The flow of a good questionnaire Ch 13 Sampling process of obtaining information from a subset of a larger group Population entire group of people about whom information is needed also called universe or population of interest Universe aka population of interest The entire group of people about whom information is needed or about whom the researcher needs to obtain info Recruitment is part of the sampling strategy Census collection of data obtained from or about every member of the population of interest Sample subset of all the members of a population of interest Steps in developing a sampling plan Step 1 define the population of interest Step 2 Choose a data collection method Step 3 identify a sampling frame o List of population elements from which units to be sampled can be selected or a specified procedure for generating such a list Ex a phone book a list of all registered voters in Kansas Step 4 Select a sampling method o Probability random is the best vs non probability Random is the best but it is expensive o Random digit dialing method of generating lists of telephone numbers at random You need to include attrition rate Step 5 determine sample size o 350 400 for a local or regional sample if you don t have enough people sometimes the statistics won t be accurate o nominal categorical data 1 or 2 can t average so no need for a mean Step 6 develop operational procedures for selecting sample elements Step 7 execute the operational sampling plan Pro s and Con s regarding probability and non probability samples 1 Cons of non probability samples a Does not know the degree to which the sample is representative of the population from which it was drawn External validity is LOW b Cannot compute sampling error c Results cannot and should not be projected to the total population 2 Pros of non probability samples a Lower costs b Can be gathered more quickly c Reasonable representative of the population if collected in a careful thorough manner Sampling error error that occurs because the sample selected is not perfectly representative of the population Simple sampling probability sample selected by assigning a number to every element of the population and then using a table of random numbers to select specific elements for inclusion in the sample Systematic sampling probability sampling in which the entire population is numbered and elements are selected using a skip interval Stratified sampling probability sample that is forced to be more representative through simple random sampling of mutually exclusive and exhaustive subsets Cluster sampling probability sample in which the sampling units are selected from a number of small geographic areas to reduce data collection costs Methods of non probability sampling Convenience samples based on using people who are easily accessible Judgment samples the selection criteria are based on the researcher s judgment about representativeness of the population under study Quota samples quotas based on demographic or classification factors selected by the researcher are established for population subgroups Snowball samples additional respondents are selected

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KU JOUR 460 - Study Guide 3

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