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Intro to Organizational Communication Communication 3325Dr. DeAndreaSpring 2014Final Exam Friday April 25th 4:00pmOverview:All content from the final portion of class is fair game for the exam (the exam is notcumulative). This includes chapters 8, 10, & 11 from the main textbook, in- classlectures, and content covered during lecture from the optional books listed on yoursyllabus (i.e., Negotiating Rationally; chapter 4 from Reflect & Relate). I recommend thatstudents focus on material covered in lecture and look for areas of overlap in the textbookfor review.Format:There will be true/false questions and multiple-choice questionsLeadership- Trait theories of leadership (pros and cons)o Leaders can have certain characteristicso Guiding assumption If someone has qualities x, y, and z…- They will be an effective leader- Ex. Good communications skills, highly organized, decisive, humble, charismatic, willing to delegateo Organizations advocating a trait approach to leadership might use personality tests to select people with the “right” combination of characteristics or might use these traits to help organization members in self assessment o Model can suggest that leaders have particular behavior “styles” that makethem more of less of effective leaders Essentially a way of translating preferred traits into preferred behaviors o What traits? Intelligence- Verbal ability, cognitive ability- Perceptual ability- Reasoning - Intelligence is broad Self confidence- Feel you can make a difference Determination- Desire to get job done Integrity- Honesty- Trustworthiness Sociability- Friendly, outgoing- Will to follow someone they like more than someone they dislikeo Overall, little support for trait theories Assume leadership success across situations Assume stable leadership traits Need to consider how leadership styles work for specific situations- Different individuals might be differently suited for variousleadership situations  LMX model proposes leaders develop different leader relationships with different subordinates - Idea of having “ideal” type of leader is contrary to experience in which leaders work in different ways with different people - Contingency theoryo When many scholars rejected a trait approach to leadership they turned to ideas that emphasized the “match” of style of the leader to the characteristics of the situation (best known is contingency theory)o Fielder studied groups to learn about leader effectiveness Found that…- Cant predict group success just by the leaders qualities- Cant predict based on the situation the leader faces  Success was contingent on both…- The leaders motivational style- The leaders capacity to control the situationo Leadership styles Relationship-motivated leaders- Emphasis on maintaining positive relationships within group, friendliness, trust- Better in mid-range situationso Relationship building needed and appreciatedo Not too far gone to be effective  Task-motivated leaders- Emphasis on completing task, regulating behavior, reducing goal ambiguity- Better when situations are highly favorable or unfavorableo Good situations Nothing to worry about Focus on tasko Bad situations Drive group toward goals Things are so messed up that you would never be able to fix relationshipso Situation characteristics Leader member relations- Quality of relationship between leader and group Task structure- Do people know what is expected of them? Position power- How much authority does leader possess?- Leader-member exchange theoryo Basic premise Leadership is a series of dyadic relationships- Develop and are negotiated over time- Look at how leader interacts with each member Relationships can range in closeness- Leader member exchange (LMX)o Mutual trust, liking, greater interaction- Supervisory exchange (SX)o Role refined o Contractually based- LMX/in-group <- ---- -> SX/out-groupo Range of relationship types LMX vs. SX continuum- Can be more personal or unique to an individual OR you are just A worker or A player- How leader treats member- Member is place in in-group or out-groupo Want to be placed in in-group- Leaders farther on the LMX side want workers to be motivated to do well while SX workers simply will threatento fire if the worker doesn’t get the job doneo Characteristics of different superior-subordinate relationships Building trust through communication- Behavioral consistencyo Subordinate can predict future behavior - Integrityo Telling truth- Sharing and delegating- Demonstration of concern Immediacy- Communicating warmth and closenesso Attentivenesso Nonverbal cueso Verbal appreciation Feedback- Can have positive outcomeso But only when done effectively- When giving positive feedbacko Add complexity  Subordinate will process more Effects more long lasting Include guidance for additional improvement o When giving negative feedback Focus on group/ organization standards Don’t fall in avoidance trap- How to improve superior-subordinate relationshipso Tactics for subordinates Personal- Informal interaction Contractual- Conform to rules/ expectations Regulative- Strategic control of messageso No TMIo Appropriate emotion and contact Direct negotiation- What our relationship should be like- Resolve received injusticeso Tactics for leaders LMX- Use more pro social tacticso Self esteem, responsibility to others- Don’t invoke authority as mucho Less likely to use punishment, threats  SX- More likely to invoke authorityo Give directivesEmotion in the workplace- Emotion at worko Emotion is often unavoidable Public vs. private tensions- Friends outside of work- Private disclosure in public meeting Interdependence of workers- Bad apple spoils bunch- Rumors Conflicting allegiances Emotional rights/expectations- Problematic when violated How do we deal with inevitability of emotion?- Scholar developed “emotional rules”- Emotional laboro Displaying emotion as part of the job Often faked- Why?o To satisfy job requirementso For personal gain- Emotional worko Deal with genuine and managed emotions Notice need for compassion Connect by taking other perspective Respond verbally and nonverbally to help situation- Why emotion affects work relationships- Emotional rules- Emotional intelligenceo Ability to… Recognize and interpret emotion- Is coworker unhappy?- Am I unhappy? Control

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OSU COMM 3325 - Final Exam

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