O-K-State PSYC 1113 - From Stress to Health and Well-Being

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Chapter 14From Stress to Health and Well-BeingPsychoneuroimmunology – tying of our immune system along with our brain, emotions, etc.Stress – Physical or mental response to a challenging situation. * Hans Selye’s definition of stress is the body’s physiological response to any demand placed upon itPerspectives of stress:Biological – the way individuals are hard-wiredBehavioral – certain stress responses are learnedDevelopmental – age effects how we deal with stressCognitive – some perceive stress differentlyWhole-Person – personality traits can predict healthier copingSociocultural – certain stress responses are more prevalent in some cultures than in othersStressor – the demands that are placed or an internal or external stimulus that causes stress.Traumatic stressor – A situation that threatens one’s physical safety, arousing feelings of fear, horror or helplessness.Sources of stress – Financial, relationship, work, school, etc.Life changes – Too much change in one’s life can actually affect one’s health.Life change units (Social Readjustment Rating Scale SRRS) – points given to different events that show how stressful someone’s life is based on the situation.Loss – Loss of a loved one, freedom, income. All leads to loss of hope.Relationship ending phases:Interpsychic phase - think about ending it Diatec phase - when one party makes it knownSocial phase - informs friends and familyGrave dressing phase - mourning and reviewing of the relationship.Catastrophe – horrible events that take place1. Emergency phase – during first three to four weeks. 2. Inhibition phase – next three to eight weeks. Less talk and thinking about the event.But more argument over it.3. Adaptation phase – 2 months on through the year.Narratives – a personal account of a stressful event that describes our interpretation of what happened and why.Grief – the emotional response to loss, which includes sadness, anger, helplessness, guilt, and despair. Societal stressors – Overpopulation, economic recession, nuclear war, etcBurnout – Family and work stress. Defined by Christina Maslach. See definition below.Hassles – Accumulation of all the small frustrationsReponses:1. Shock/denial2. Automatic Action 3. Loss of energy4. Let down5. RecoveryChristina Maslach – Syndrome of emotional exhaustionPhysical consequences of stress:Arousal – physiological and psychological state of being awake or reactive to stimuli.Acute stress – A temporary state of arousal, caused by a stressor, with a distinct onset and limited duration.Chronic stress – A continuous state of arousal in which an individual perceives demands as greater than the inner and outer resources available for dealing with themFight or flight – Sequence of internal responses preparing an organism for struggle or escape.The General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) – (Hans Selye) A three phase pattern of physical responses to a chronic stressor1. Alarm phase – when the body’s resources are mobilized to cope with the stressor2. Resistance phase – when the body adapts to an maintains resources to cope with the stressor.3. Exhaustion phase – when the body’s resources become depleted. Immune Function – a diffuse, complex network of interacting cells, cell products, and cell-forming tissues that protects the body from pathogens and otherforeign substances, destroys infected and malignant cells, and removes cellular debris.Psychological consequences of stress:Posttraumatic Stress Syndrome (PTSD) – a delayed stress reaction in which an individual involuntarily re-experiences emotional, cognitive, and behavioral aspects of post trauma. Residual stress pattern – A chronic syndrome in which the emotional responses of posttraumatic stress persist over time.Stockholm syndrome – is a psychological phenomenon in which hostages express empathy and sympathy and have positive feelings toward their captors, sometimes to the point of defending and identifying with them.Hedonic Capacity – Capacity of pleasureCognitive consequences of stress:Attention – Harder to pay attentionMemory – memory performance declines.Responding to stress:Anticipatory coping – The mental and physical efforts that a human makes to deal with an anticipated stressful event to tolerate, minimize of overcome the emotions associated with stress.Coping vs. defending – coping is a conscious process while defending is an unconscious process. Defending is used as a survival instrument while coping is a set goal for how to handle stress.Coping Styles – Actions that reduces or eliminates the impact of stress.Problem solving – Action taken to clarify and resolve stressorEmotion focused coping – Regulating one’s emotional response to a stressorModerator variables – a qualitative or quantitative variable that affects the direction and/or strength of the relation between dependent and independent variables.Ego-defense mechanisms – the ego uses this to reduce negative feelings.Cognitive assessment - is an examination conducted to determine someone's level of cognitive function.Cognitive appraisals – a process of recognizing a stressor and asses the amount of demand it has on us and identifying the resources we have to deal with it. Richard Lazarus: Primary appraisal – What is it? How bad is it? How long will it last? Identifying the stress and how bad it is.Secondary appraisal – evaluate the availability of the resources we have to deal with the stress and making a decision on how to deal with it. Modifying cognition:Reappraising stressors – evaluating the situation again and reacting differentlyRestructuring cognition – Reappraising a stressor with the goal of seeing it from a more positive perspective.*What you believe about your circumstance is more important than the circumstance itselfPersonality factors - Type A – A person who’s driven and is constantly pushing themselvesType B – Goes with the flow, more easy going.Type T – Thrill seeking and looking for adventures Hardiness – resilient quality that’s based on certain attitudes towards stress and how to manage it. Don’t get ill very much. The 3 C’s: Challenge, Commitment, and Control. They welcome change as a challenge, making the commitment to meet the challenges they face, control is having an internal sense of control over ones decisions. This is a learned approach to stress.Social support – refers to the resources provided by

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O-K-State PSYC 1113 - From Stress to Health and Well-Being

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